بررسی مزیت نسبی کشت مخلوط افزایشی کدوی تخم کاغذی (Cucurbita pepo L.) و آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) تحت تأثیر تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، ایران.

چکیده

به‏منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف آبیاری و الگوی کاشت بر کمیت و کیفیت عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب (WUE) دو گیاه کدو تخم کاغذی (Cucurbita pepo L.) و آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L)، آزمایشی به‏صورت اسپلیت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان در سال 1398 اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی آزمایش شامل سطوح مختلف آبیاری (90، 60 و 30 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) و فاکتور فرعی شامل الگوی کاشت (کشت خالص کدو تخم کاغذی، کشت خالص آفتابگردان، کشت مخلوط سری افزایشی 100% کدو + 50% آفتابگردان درون جوی و کشت مخلوط افزایشی 100% کدو + 50% آفتابگردان روی پشته‏ها) بود. نتایج نشان داد که در کلیه الگوهای کشت، با افزایش شدت تنش خشکی اجزای عملکرد، عملکرد و درصد روغن دانه‏ دو گیاه به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. در تمام سطوح آبیاری، الگوی کشت مخلوط افزایشی 100% کدو + 50% آفتابگردان درون جوی بالاترین میزان تعداد میوه در بوته، وزن تک میوه، عملکرد میوه، دانه و روغن کدو را دارا بود. برتری عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد کدو در الگوی کشت یاد شده نسبت به کشت خالص کدو با افزایش شدت تنش خشکی بیشتر مشهود بود. بیشترین قطر طبق (33 سانتی‏متر) و تعداد دانه در طبق (1640) آفتابگردان نیز مربوط به تیمار 100% کدو + 50% آفتابگردان درون جوی با آبیاری بر اساس 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی بود. در تمام سطوح آبیاری، عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان در کشت خالص به‌دلیل دارا بودن تراکم بوته بالاتر به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از هر دو کشت مخلوط بود. بیشترین محتوی پرولین کدو (μmol.g-1 FW 52/1) و آفتابگردان (μmol.g-1 FW 63/2) در کشت خالص آن‌ها در شرایط تنش شدید به‌دست آمد. در تمام سطوح آبیاری و هر دو الگوی کشت مخلوط، نسبت برابری زمین (LER) بالاتر از یک بود. در بین الگوهای کشت مخلوط، بیشترین WUE (64/0 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب) در الگوی کشت 100% کدو + 50% آفتابگردان درون جوی با آبیاری براساس 60 درصد ظرفیت زراعی مشاهده شد. بنابراین، به نظر می‏رسد کشت مخلوط افزایشی آفتابگردان باعث سایه‏اندازی بر کدو تخم کاغذی شده و از این طریق تبخیر و تعرق را کاهش می‏دهد، می‏تواند در فرار گیاه از تنش خشکی مفید بوده و قابل ‏توصیه به کشاورزان باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Comparative Advantage of Naked-Seeded Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Intercropping as affected by Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Masumi
  • Rooholla Moradi
  • Naseebe Pourghasemian
  • Mehdi Naghizade
Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Limitation of water resources is one of the crucial factors that contributes to the decline in agricultural productivity (Zhang et al., 2012). Intercropping plays a pivotal role for increasing biodiversity, land use efficiency, nutrient and water use efficiencies, and enhanced ecological services. Intercropping could be one of the alternatives to address some of the associated obstacles with modern agriculture, including low yield, pest and pathogen infection, soil degradation and environmental deterioration, thereby promoting sustainable and productive agriculture. Naked-seeded pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is an herbaceous, monoecious, annual plant of the Cucurbitaceae family (Lewis et al. 1997). The plant is economically and nutritionally important and cultivated for oil and medical purposes all over the globe. Several studies have reported the chemical composition and oil characteristics of the pumpkin seed from different origins and varieties (Kostalova et al., 2009). Summer squash is used for treating Helminth and reducing bad cholesterol. There is no official data about summer squash cultivation in Iran, but many Iranian farmers cultivate summer squash in marginal lands.Due to the importance of two species of naked-seeded pumpkin and sunflower and the lack of sufficient and documented information on intercropping of these two plants under drought stress, the present experiment was conducted to measure the potential of intercropping of these two plants and investigate their response to drought stress.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to evaluate the effect of different levels of irrigation and planting pattern on yield quantity and quality and water use efficiency (WUE) intercropped of pumpkin and sunflower, an experiment was conducted as the split-plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at experiment station of the Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2019. The experimental treatments were irrigation levels (90, 60 and 30% of field capacity; FC) assigned to the main plot and planting patterns (sole cropping of pumpkin, sole cropping of sunflower, additive intercropping of 100% of pumpkin + 50% of sunflower on ridge and additive intercropping of 100% of pumpkin + 50% of sunflower in furrow) as the subplot.
Results and discussion
The results showed that the highest fruit number, single fruit weight, fruit, seed and oil yields of pumpkin were obtained in additive intercropping of 100% of pumpkin + 50% of sunflower in furrow. With increasing drought stress level, the superiority of the furrow planting pattern relative to sole cropping was more evident for pumpkin. The largest head diameter (33 cm) and highest seed per head (1640) was found for additive intercropping of 100% of pumpkin + 50% of sunflower in furrow when irrigated with 90% of FC. In all irrigation levels, sunflower seed yield in sole cropping was significantly higher than both intercropping pattern due to its higher plant density. The maximum proline content for pumpkin (1.52 μmol g-1 FW) and sunflower (2.63 μmol g-1 FW) were observed at the two species sole cropping in severe drought stress condition. Land equivalent ratio (LER) was higher than one in all the irrigation levels and planting patterns. The highest value of WUE (0.64 kg m-3) was related to additive intercropping of 100% of pumpkin + 50% of sunflower in furrow when irrigated with 60% of FC.
Conclusion
The results of this study illustrated that pumpkin is a sensitive plant to drought stress, and deviation of water availability from the field capacity significantly declines the yield. The addition of sunflower in the middle of the furrow between the two rows of pumpkin could reduce the negative effects of drought stress on the plant. This planting pattern could also significantly improve the fruit and seed yields of pumpkin in both moderate and severe stress conditions. However, the addition of sunflower on the ridge and between pumpkin plants had no significant positive effect on improving pumpkin yield under drought stress, due to increased interspecific competition. Therefore, pumpkin intercropping with high height plants such as sunflower, which causes a shading effect on pumpkin and reduces evapotranspiration, can be a useful strategy under drought.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • LER
  • Oil
  • Proline
  • WUE
Dixit, V., Pandey, V., and Shyam, R., 2001. Differential antioxidative responses to cadmium in roots and leaves of pea. Journal of Experimental Botany 52: 1101-1109.
Erdem, T., Erdem, Y., Orta, A.H., and Okursoy, H., 2006. Use of a crop water stress index for scheduling the irrigation of sunflower (Helianthus annuss L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 30: 11-20.
Ertek, A., Şensoy, S., Küçükyumuk, C., and Gedik, I., 2004. Irrigation frequency and amount affect yield components of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Agricultural Water Management 67(1): 63–76.
Fu, C.L., Shi, H., and LI, Q.H., 2006. A review on pharmacological activities and utilization technologies of pumpkin. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 61: 73-80.
Gao, Y., Duan, A., Sun, J., Li, F., Liu, Z., Liu, H., and Liu, Z., 2009. Crop coefficient and water-use efficiency of winter wheat/spring maize strip intercropping. Field Crops Research 111: 65-73.
Ghanbari, A., Nadjafi, F., and Shabahang, J., 2007. Effects of irrigation regimes and row arrangement on yield, yield components and seed quality of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6: 1072-1079.
Gholami Kalus, Z., Salehi, A., Movahedi Dehnavi, M., and Moradi, A., 2018. Effect of mycorrhizal and phosphate barvar 2 on yield and yield components and oil content of safflower under drought stress. Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production 28: 125-139. (In Persian with English Summary)
Gholipoori, A., Javanshir, A., Rhaimzadeh Khoie, F., Mohammadi, A., and Biat, H., 200. The effect of different nitrogen level and pruning of head on yield and yield component of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Journal of Agricultural and Natural Resources 13(2): 32-41.
Gitari, H.I., Gachene, C.K.K., Karanja, N.N., Kamau, S., Nyawade, S.O., and Schulte-Geldermann, E., 2018. Optimizing yield and economic returns of rain-fed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) through water conservation under potato-legume intercropping systems. Agricultural Water Management 208: 59–66.
Goksoy, A.T., Demir, A.O., Turan, Z.M., and Dagustu, N., 2004. Responses of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to full and limited irrigation at different growth stages. Field Crops Research 87: 167-178.
Gooding, M.J., Ellis, R.H., Shewry, P.R., and Schofield, J.D., 2003. Effects of restricted water availability and increased temperature on grain filling, drying and quality of water wheat. Journal of Cereal Science 37: 295-309.
Hadidi, N., Sharaiha, R., and Al-Debei H., 2011. Effect of intercropping on the performance of some summer vegetable crops grown under different row arrangements. Lucrări Ştiinţifice 54: 11-17
Hamzei, J., and Babaei, M., 2015. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizing on phenology, grain yield and oil of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Hamadan region. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production 25(2): 1-13. (In Persian with English Summary)
Harveth, S., and Bedo, Z., 1998. Another possibility in treatment of hyperlipidaemia with peponen of natural active substance. Mediflora 89: 7-8.
Heidari, M., and Karami, V., 2013. Effects of water stress and different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, yield components, chlorophyll content and biochemical components of sunflower. Environmental Stress in Crop Science 6(1): 17-26. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hong, S.W., Kwon, S.J., Sohn, S.I., Kim, N.S., and Kim, J.C., 2003. Characterization of embryogenesis related Pbmyb genes during in vitro differentiation of Pimpinella brachycarpa. Korean Journal of Genetics 25(4): 293-300.
Hong-Bo, S., Xiao-Yan, C., Li-Ye, C., Xi-Ning, Z., Gang, W., Yong-Bing, Y., Chang-Xing Z., and Zan-Min, H., 2006. Investigation on the relationship of proline with wheat anti-drought under soil water deficits. Colloids and Surfaces 53: 113-119.
Kafi, M., and Rostami, M., 2009. Yield characteristic and oil content of three safflower (Charthamus tinctorius) cultivars under drought in reproductive stage and irrigation with saline water. Iranian Journal of Crops Research 5(1): 121-132. (In Persian with English Summary)
Kanton, R.A.L., and Dennett, M.D., 2004. Water uptake and use by morphologically contrasting maize/pea cultivars in sole and intercrops in temperate conditions. Experimental Agriculture 40: 201-214.
Kargar, F., 2013. The effect of drought stress and methanol foliar application on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of safflower. MSc. Thesis, in Agriculture. Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Iran. (In Persian)
Karimzadeh Asl, K., Mazaheri, D., and Peyghambari, S.A., 2003. Effect of four irrigation intervals on the seed yield and quantitive characteristics of three sunflower cultivars. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science 31(2): 293- 301. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khomari, S., Ghasemi Golezani, K., Alyari, H., Zehtab Salmasi, S., and Dabagh Mohamadi Nasab, A., 2008. Effect of irrigation disruption on phenology and grain yield of three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars in Tabriz. Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resource 14(6): 72-80. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khoramivafa, M., Eftekharinasab, N., Sayyadian, K., and Najaphy, A., 2012. Water use efficiency in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. var. styriac)/ chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)- lentil (Lens esculenta Moench.) intercropping system associated with several nitrogen levels. Journal of Agroecology 3: 245-253. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Seyyedi, S.M., and Gharaei, S., 2016. Evaluation of the effects of saffron–cumin intercropping on growth, quality and land equivalent ratio under semi-arid conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 201: 190-198.
Koocheki, A., Zarghani, H., and Norooziyan, A., 2015. Comparison of yield and yield components in different intercropping arrangements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and red bean (Phaseolus calcaratus). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 14: 242-253. (In Persian with English Summary)
Lal, B., Rana, K.S., Rana, D.S., Shivay, Y.S., Sharma, D.K., Meena, B.P., and Priyanka, G., 2019. Biomass, yield, quality and moisture use of Brassica carinata as influenced by intercropping with chickpea under semiarid tropics. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 18: 61-71.
Malik, V.S., Swanton, C.J., and Michaels, T.E., 2003. Interaction of white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars, row spacing, and seeding density with annual weeds. Weed Science 8: 62-68.
Mazaheri Laghab, H., Noori, F., Zare Abianeh, H., and Vafaie, M.H., 2001. Effect of supplementary irrigation on important agronomic traits of three sunflower cultivars in rainfed agriculture. Agricultural Research 3(1): 31-44. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mirzaei, F., Behdani, M.A., and Jamialahmadi, M., 2018. Effects of granular sulphur and planting date on yield and yield components of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 34: 820-835. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mohsenabadi, G.H.R., Jahansooz, M.R., Chaichi, M.R., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Liaghati, A.M., and Savaghebi, G.R., 2008. Evaluation of barley-vetch intercrop at different nitrogen rates. Journal of Agriculture Science Technology 10: 23-31.
Momen Keykha, M., Khammari, I., Dahmardeh, M., and Forouzandeh, M., 2018. Assessing yield and physiological aspects of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) intercropping under different levels of nitrogen. Journal of Agroecology 9: 1050-1069. (In Persian with English Summary)
Momen, A., Ghorbani, R., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Asadi G., and Parsa M., 2015. Evaluation the effects of relay intercropping of Styrian pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) with irrigated and rainfed chickpea (Cicer arietimum L.) on yield and yield components as affected by chickpea residue mulch. Journal of Agroecology 6(4): 767-778. (In Persian with English Summary)
Monreal, J.A., Jimenez, E.T., Remesal, E., Morillo-velarde, R., Garcia-Maurino, S., and Echevarria, C., 2007. Proline content of sugar beet storage roots, response to water deficit and nitrogen fertilization at field conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 60: 257-267.
Moradi, P., Asghari, J., Mohsen Abadi, G.H., and Samiezadeh, H., 2014. Evaluation of the beneficial effects of triple intercropping of maize (Zea mays L.), pinto been (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Crop Production and Processing 6(19): 177-189. (In Persian with English Summary)
Moradi, P., Asghari, J., Mohsen Abadi, G., and Samiezadeh, H., 2015. Role of triple intercropping system in weeds control and naked-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) yield. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production 24(4): 17-31. (In Persian with English Summary)
Moradi, R., Koocheki, A., and Nasiri Mahallati, M., 2017. Evaluation of economical yield and radiation use efficiency of maize and cotton in sole and intercropping systems as affected by different levels of nitrogen. Journal of Crop Production and Processing 7: 47-59.
Morid Ahmadi, S., Khorramdel, S., Koocheki, A., Shabahang, J., and Maollafilabi, A., 2018. Evaluation of yield and yield components of pumpkin (Cucrbita pepo L.) and land equivalent ratio affected as row intercropping with some field crops. Journal of Agroecology 10: 965-981. (In Persian with English Summary)
Nerson, H., 2005. Effects of fruit shape and plant density on seed yield and quality of squash. Scientia Horticulturae 105: 293–304.
Nyawade, Sh.O., Karanja, N.N., Gachene, Ch.K.K., Gitari, H.I., Schulte-Geldermann, E., and Parker, M.L., 2019. Intercropping optimizes soil temperature and increases crop water productivity and radiation use efficiency of rainfed potato. American Journal of Potato Research 96: 457–471.
Pierre, C., Petersona, S., Rossa, J., Ohma, A., Verhoerena, J., Larsona, M., and Hoefera, B., 2008. White wheat grain quality changes with genotype, nitrogen fertilization, and water stress. Agronmy Science 33: 414-420.
Pinedo-Vasquez, M., Padoch, C., McGrath, D., and Ximenes, T., 2010. Biodiversity as a product of smallholders’ strategies for overcoming changes in their natural and social landscapes: A report prepared by the unu/plecamazonia cluster. PLEC News and Views. Available at: https://archive.unu.edu/env/plec/books/Brazil.
Poggio, S.L., 2005. Structure of weed communities occurring in monoculture and intercropping of field pea and barley. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 109: 48–58.
Rabbi Angurani, H., Panahendeh Yengejeh, J., Boland Nazar, S., Saba, J., and Zare Nahandi, F., 2017. Effects of salicylic acid on some physiological and biochemical attributes of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca) under drought stress. Crops Improvement 19(4): 865-853. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rankulatile, H., Homma, K., Horie, T., Kurusa T. and Inamura, T., 1998. Land equivalent ratio of groundnut-finger millet intercrops as affected by plant combination ratio, and nitrogen and water availability. Plant Production Science 1(1): 39-46.
Rezaei Chiyaneh, E., Khorramdel, S., and Garachali, P., 2015. Evaluation of relay intercropping of sunflower and faba bean on their yield and land use efficiency. Journal of crops Improvement 17(1): 183-196. (In Persian with English Summary)
Roshdi, M., and Rezadost, S., 2005. Investigation of the effect of different levels of irrigation on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sunflower cultivars. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science 36(5): 1241-1250.
Roy, S., Barman, M., Puste, A.M., Gunri, S.K., and Jana, K., 2014. Growth, yield, water use efficiency and competitive functions of intercropping system of maize (Zea mays L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) as influenced by irrigation. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 13(2): 94-107.
Sanchez, F.J., Manzanares, M., Andres, E.F., Ternorio, J.L., Ayerbe, L., and De Andres, E.F., 1998. Turgor maintenance, osmotic adjustment and soluble sugar and proline accumulation in 49 pea cultivars in response to water stress. Field Crop Research 59: 225-235.
Seyahjani, A., Farhvash, F., Khorshidi Benam, M.B., and Sadeghi, A., 2010. Studying the effect of drought stress on yield and yield components of three sunflower cultivars. Environmental Stresses in Crop Science 3(1): 68-59. (In Persian with English Summary)
Seyfi, M., 2014. The effect of dehydration, salicylic acid and ascorbic acid stress on yield and oil content of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Master Thesis, in Agriculture. Faculty of Agriculture, Shahroud University of Technology, Iran. (In Persian)
Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., Asadi, G., Meerabai, A., and Nemati, H., 2010. The effects of intra and inter-row spaces and planting pattern on the yield components, seed and oil yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). Journal of Agroecology 2(3): 417-427. (In Persian with English Summary)
Siami, A., Heidari, R., and Dastpak, A., 2003. Assessment of lipid content and studying fatty acids in some varieties of cucurbita L.. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 59: 16-19. (In Persian with English Summary)
Smith, B.N., Girija, C., and Swamy, P.M., 2002. Interactive effects of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the accumulation of proline and glycine betaine in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Environmental and Experimental Botany 47: 1-10.
Taheri, A., 2011. Investigation of some photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of four squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) under water stress. MSc. Thesis. Agriculture. Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Tavassoli, A. Ghanbari, A., Ahmadi, M.M., and Heydari, M., 2010. The effect of fertilizer and manure on forage and grain yield of and bean in intercropping. Iranian Journal of Agronomy Research 8(2): 96-114.
Valliyodan, B., and Nguyen, H.T., 2006. Understanding regulatory networks and engineering enhanced drought tolerance in plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 9: 1-7.
Vandermeer, J.H., 1990. Intercropping. In: Agroecology. Mc Graw– Hill publishing Co. p. 481-516.
Vega, C.R.C., Andrade, F.H., Sadras, V.O., Uhart, S.A., and Valentinuz, O.R., 2001. Seed number as a function of growth. A comparative study in soybean, sunflower and maize. Crop Science 40: 748-754.
Wagner, F.S., 2000. The health value of Styrian pumpkin-seed oil. Science and Fiction 40: 122-123.
Walker, S., and Ogindo, H.O., 2003. The water budget of rainfed maize and bean intercrop. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 28: 919-926.
Weiss, E.A., 1983. Oilseed Crops. First Published by Long Man. London, pp. 31-99.
Yang, C., Huang, G., Chai, Q., and Luo, Z., 2011. Water use and yield of wheat/maize intercropping under alternate irrigation in the oasis field of northwest China. Field Crops Research 124: 426-432.
Yin, C.X., Pang, X., and Lei, Y., 2009. Populous from high altitude has more efficient protective mechanisms under water stress than from low altitude habitats: A study in greenhouse for cuttings. Physiologia Plantarum 137: 22-35.
Zhang, L., Van Der, W.W., Zhang, S., Li, B., and Spiertz, J.H.J., 2007. Growth, yield and quality of wheat and cotton in relay strip intercropping systems. Field Crops Research 103: 178-188.
Zhu, J.K., 2002. Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annual Reviews Plant Biology 53: 247-316.
Zimdahal, R.L., 1993. Fundamentals of Weed Science. Academic Prass, New York