مدیریت تلفیقی علف هرز جودره (Hordeum spontaneum Koch.) در مزارع گندم در شرایط هیرم کاری

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی امکان کنترل تلفیقی علف هرز جودره
(Hordeum spontaneum Koch.) در مزارع گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) در شرایط هیرم کاری آزمایشی با استفاده از علفکش سولفوسولفورون و مقادیر مختلف تراکم کاشت گندم به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار در سال زراعی 86-1385 در بخش ملک آباد شهرستان قم مطالعه‌ای صورت گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل مقدار بذر کشت شده گندم در مقادیر (250، 275 و 300 کیلوگرم بذر در هکتار) و زمان مصرف علفکش سولفوسولفورون در مراحل رشدی (چهار برگی، شش برگی و هشت برگی علف هرز جودره) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که با در نظر گرفتن عملکرد اقتصادی گندم و ملاحظات زیست محیطی، تلفیق مصرف 275 کیلوگرم بذر گندم در هکتار و کاربرد علفکش سولفوسولفورون به میزان 27 گرم در هکتار به همراه سیتوگیت به میزان 2 درصد در مرحله چهار برگی علف هرز جودره بیشترین تأثیر را بر کاهش خسارت جودره داشت. همچنین اثر این تیمارها به طور معنی داری صفات مورد بررسی این علف هرز را کاهش داد و از طرفی پارامترهای اندازه‌گیری شده گندم (بویژه عملکرد دانه) نیز در این تیمارها در حد مطلوبی بود. کاربرد تیمارهای تلفیقی اشاره شده سبب کاهش زاد‌آوری بذر جودره شد و همین امر سبب کاهش ورود بذر این علف‌هرز به بانک بذر می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Integrated management of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum Koch) in wheat field under stale seedbed condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Baghestani Maybodi
  • Hasan Sayedipour
  • Eskandar Zand
  • Mahdi Minbashi-moeini
  • Fariba Maighani
  • Ali Lashkari
چکیده [English]

Field experiment was conducted in order to determine the effect of wheat seeding rate and time of application of sulfosulfuron for control of Hordeum spontaneum in wheat field in 2007 in Qom Province, Iran. The experimental design was completely randomized block with four replications in which treatments were arranged as factorial. The treatments were wheat seed rates at 250, 275 and 300 kg/ha and time of application of sulfosulfuron in different growth stages of Hordeum spontaneum (four-leaves, six leaves and eight leaves). Results showed that using 275 kg/ha and application of sulfosulfuron at four-leaves growth stage of Hordeum spontaneum in stale seedbed method were the best treatments for suppressing of Hordeum spontaneum in wheat field. These treatments reduced growth of Hordeum spontaneum while increased attributed growth criteria of wheat, particularly wheat grain yield. According to economical and environmental standpoints, using wheat seed rate at 275 kg/ha and applying sulfosulfuron at four-leaves stage of Hordeum spontaneum were the best treatment for integrated management of wild barley. These treatments affected seed production of wild barley, therefore, the input of wild barley seed to seed bank can be reduced by mentioned treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Seeding rate
  • Herbicide
  • Sulfosulfuron
  • Cultural control
  • Seed bank
  • Competition
Atri, A., Baghestani, M.A., Partovi, M., 2008. Quantitative evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) against
88 نشریه بوم شناسی کشاورزی، جلد 1، شماره 1، سال 1388
volunteer rye (Secale cereale L.) in Iran. Weed Biol. Manag. 8, 191-200.
2- Baghestani, M.A., 2007. Investigating effciency of sulfosulfuron (Apyros 75 WDG) on different species of wild
barley (Hordeum spp.) control in wheat field. Final report of project, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protec.
76pp. (In Persian).
3- Baghestani, M.A., 2008. Effect of time of application on efficiency of sulfosulfuron (Apyros 75 WDG) on
different species of wild barley (Hordeum spp.). Final report of project, Iranian Research Institute of Plant
Protection. 43pp. (In Persian).
4- Baghestani, M.A., and Atri, A., 2003. Determination of competitive ability of wheat against rye (Secale cerale L.)
using reciprocal yield model in Karaj. Appl. Ent. Phytopath. 71, 43-56.
5- Baghestani, M.A., Zand E., Minbashi M., Atri A., 2008a. A review on the researches conducted for controlling of
wild barley species (Hordeum spp.) in wheat fields of Iran. In: Proceedings of the 2nd National Weed Science
Congress. January 2008, Mashhad, Iran. Vol. 3. 47-61. (In Persian with English summary).
6- Baghestani, M.A., Zand, E., Mesgaran M.B., Veyssi, M., Pourazr, R., Mohammadipour M., 2008b. Control of weed
barley species in winter wheat with sulfosulfuron at different rates and times of application. Weed Biol. and
Manag. 8, 181-190.
7- Baghestani, M.A., Zand, E., Soufiezadeh, S., Jamali, M., Mighany, F., 2007. Evaluation of sulfosulfuron for
broadleaved and grass weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Iran. Crop Protect., 26, 1385-1389.
8- Blackshaw, R.E., Beckie, H.J., Molnar, L.J., Entz, T., Moyer, J.R., 2005. Combining agronomic practices and
herbicides improves weed management in wheat-canola rotations within zero-tillage production systems. Weed Sci.
53, 528-535.
9- Felton, W. C., 1976. The influence of row spacing and plant population on the effect of weed competition in
soybean (Glycine max). Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Husb. 16, 926-934.
10- Hassanzadeh-Dalooei, M., Noormohammadi, Gh., Rahimian-mashhadi, H., 2003. Determination of wheat ideotype
for light competition with wild oat (Avena ludoviciana) and turnip weed (Rapistrum rugosum) using simulation
approach. Iran. Crop Sci. 3, 176-184.
11- Jamnejad, M., 2007. Investigating of competitive ability of less and moer competitive cultivars of wheat (Triticum
aestivum L.) in different density of wheat and Eruca sativa Mill. Ph.D. Thesis. Fac. Agric. Azad Univ., Brach Sci.
and Technol. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian with English summary).
12- Lemerle, D., Verbeek, B., Cousens, R. D., Coombes, N. E., 1996. The Potential for selecting wheat varieties
strongly competitive against weeds. Weed Res. 36, 505-513.
13- Mohler, C. L. 1991. Ecological bases for the cultural control of annual weeds. J. Prod. Agric. 9, 468-474.
14- Tasnim-shirazi, M., 2008. Response of Hordeum spontaneum, Hordeum murinum, Hordeum distichon and
Hordeum vulgare to sulfosulfuron. M.Sc. Thesis. Fac. Agric. Azad Univ., Brach Sci. and Technol. Tehran, Iran. (In
Persian with English summary).
15- Teasadle, J. R., Frank, R., 1980. Effect of snap bean spacing on weed competition. Proc. Northeast. Weed Sci. 34,
109-115.
16- Teasdale, J. R. Frank, R., 1993. Effect of row spacing on weed competition with snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Weed Technol. 31, 81-85.
17- Veissi, M., Baghestani, M.A., Zand E., 2008. Determining the appropriate rate of sulfosulfuron in controlling wild
barley (Hordeum spontaneum Koch.) in wheat fields in Kermanshah. In: Proceedings of the 2nd National Weed
Science Congress. January 2008, Mashhad, Iran. Vol. 1. 374-377. (In Persian with English summary).