اثر شدت عملیات خاک‌ورزی و سطوح نیتروژن بر روی برخی از ویژگی‏های خاک در تناوب زراعی ذرت-کلزا-ذرت

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اگروتکنولوزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران.

2 گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران.

3 پژوهشکده کشاورزی هسته ای، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته ای

چکیده

این پژوهش به‌منظور ارزیابی تأثیر عملیات خاک‌ورزی و سطوح نیتروژن بر روی اسیدیته خاک، وزن مخصوص ظاهری، کربن‏آلی خاک، نیتروژن کل، پتاسیم قابل ‏تبادل و فسفر قابل جذب در تناوب زراعی ذرت- کلزا-ذرت به‌صورت کرت‏های خرد‏ شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‏‏های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی بخش تحقیقات کشاورزی هسته‏ای سازمان انرژی اتمی ایران در دو سال زراعی (92-1391و 93-1392) انجام پذیرفت. کرت‏های اصلی شامل شخم رایج (گاو‏آهن برگردان‏دار، گاو‏آهن روتاری و ماله) و شخم حداقل (دیسک) و کرت‏های فرعی شامل چهار سطح کود نیتروژن (صفر، 150،50 و 250 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار) بود. نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه نشان داد که عملیات خاک‌ورزی در کوتاه مدت (دو سال) تأثیر معنی‏داری بر روی افزایش و یا کاهش میزان کربن آلی خاک نداشت و همچنین اسیدیته خاک، وزن مخصوص ظاهری و میزان نیتروژن کل، پتاسیم قابل ‏تبادل و فسفر قابل جذب در خاک نیز در این آزمایش تحت تأثیر عملیات خاک‌ورزی قرار نگرفتند. سطوح نیتروژن تأثیر معنی‏داری (05/0P≤) بر روی وزن مخصوص ظاهری، میزان نیتروژن کل، پتاسیم قابل‏ تبادل و فسفر قابل جذب در خاک داشت. کمترین وزن مخصوص ظاهری برای تیمار 250 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به‌دست آمد. بیشترین میزان نیتروژن کل مربوط به سطوح نیتروژن 250 و 150کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب 1036 و 968 میلی‏گرم در کیلوگرم بود. افزایش سطوح نیتروژن باعث کاهش پتاسیم‏ قابل ‏تبادل و همچنین کاهش فسفر قابل‏ جذب در خاک شد به‌طوری‌که کمترین میزان پتاسیم قابل ‏تبادل برای سطوح نیتروژن 250 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب 127 و 130 میلی‏گرم بر کیلوگرم و میزان فسفر قابل جذب برای این دو تیمار به‌ترتیب 43/13 و 24/14 میلی‏گرم بر کیلوگرم به‌دست آمد. افزایش سطوح نیتروژن به‌واسطه بهبود و افزایش رشد و نمو گیاهان زراعی، افزایش میزان جذب دو عنصر پتاسیم و فسفر به‌وسیله گیاه را به همراه دارد و متعاقباً میزان پتاسیم‏قابل تبادل و فسفر قابل جذب در خاک کاهش می‏یابد. افزایش رشد ریشه گیاهان زراعی نیز در نتیجه افزایش سطوح نیتروژن باعث کاهش وزن مخصوص ظاهری می‏شود. بر اساس نتایج به‌دست آمده به نظر می‏رسد برای مطالعه اثر عملیات خاک‌ورزی بر روی کربن‏آلی و وزن مخصوص ظاهری خاک به بازه زمانی بلند‏تری نیاز باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Tillage and N Application Rate on Soil Quality in Corn-Canola-Corn Rotation

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyed shahaboddin Moinoddini 1
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
  • Mehdi Nassiri Mahalati 2
  • Azam borzouei 3
1 Department of Agrotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
2 Department of Agrotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
3 Agricultural Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
 Sustainable production in agriculture is closely related to the proper soil chemical, physical, and biological conditions which are considered as the main functions of soil organic matter. The amount of soil organic matter, especially soil organic carbon (SOC), in agricultural ecosystems depends on the tillage practices. Conventional tillage (CT) which generally uses moldboard plow, results in soil losses by intense erosion, a net loss of nutrients and organic carbon. Toward sustainable agriculture, decreasing plow intensity of CT through application of conservation tillage strategy in which tillage practices are omitted or limited to a considerable extent, has been reported as an essential alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage management practices and N application on soil chemical and physical properties as well as SOC in a corn-based rotation on a clay loam textured soil in semi-arid climate of Hashtgerd, Iran.
Materials and Methods
 A field experiment as the split plot design with three replications carried out in the research farm of agricultural research department of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in two successive growing seasons during 2011-13. The tillage systems were (CT) conventional tillage (moldboard, rotary, and leveler) and; (MT) minimum tillage (disk) assigned as the main plot; and N rates of application, as the subplots, were 0, 50, 150, 250 kg ha-1. In CT treatment, moldboard plow to a depth of 25-30 cm was used as the primary tillage once in autumn and once in spring each year. As the secondary tillage, CT plots were rotavated to 10 cm depth in spring. MT treatment included two trips over the plots with disk harrow cutting to a soil depth of approximately 10 cm prior to sowing. Soil pH, bulk density (BD), total nitrogen (TN), soil organic carbon (SOC), exchangeable K and available P were then evaluated. Soil samples were collected in September 2013 after the end of three growing seasons from 0-30 cm depth at 5 locations per plot using a 3.5 cm diameter coring tube.
Results and Discussion
 The results showed that short-term (2 years) effect of tillage systems on soil pH, BD, TN, SOC and exchangeable K as well as available P, was not significant (p ≤ 0.05). However, N application rate significantly (p ≤ 0.05) changed soil TN, BD, exchangeable k and available P. Soil TN increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) by increase in N application rate as the highest amount of TN was 1036 and 968 mg kg-1 in 250 and 150 kg ha-1, respectively. As the soil samples were taken after crops harvest, soil TN is illustrative of the residual soil N and high amount of TN implies the excessive N application. Soil BD decreased significantly in 250 kg N ha-1. Increasing the N application rate would decrease soil BD by increasing root growth. Exchangeable K and available P decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) by increasing N application rate. The lowest amount of soil exchangeable K, and available P was detected for N rate of 250 and 150 kg ha-1, 127 and 130 mg kg-1 for K, and 13.43 and 14.24 mg kg-1 for P, respectively. Increased N application promotes plant growth and improves nutrient uptakes such as K and P, consequently, the amount of soil exchangeable K and available P would decrease.
Conclusion
 Toward sustainable agriculture, conservation tillage seems to be an effective strategy to maintain crop yields as well as soil chemical, physical, and biological properties in the long-term. However, based on the results, tillage systems (CT and MT) had no significant effects on SOC as well as other investigated soil properties in the studied site in the short-term. However, N application rate increased soil TN and decreased BD, exchangeable K and available P. It seems that longer-term investigations are needed to evaluate the probable effects of different tillage systems on soil properties particularly SOC

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bulk density
  • Soil organic carbon
  • Soil pH
  • TN
  • Tillage
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