Abbaszadeh, B., and Zakerian, F., 2016. Elements uptake in balm under the effect of mycorrhiza and piriformospora indica and vermicompost. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 1(32): 47-56. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ahmad Abadi, Z., Ghajar Sepanlou, M., and Rahimi Alashti, S., 2012. Effect of vermicompost on physical and chemical properties of soil. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources 15(58): 125-137. (In Persian with English Summary)
Alizadeh, K., Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E., Amirnia, R., and Barin, M., 2020. Combined application of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi on seed yield, macronutrients uptake and soil biological index in intercropping linseed with faba bean. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable 1(30): 19-40. (In Persian with English Summary)
Allen, J.R., and Ebura, P.K., 1983. Yield of corn, cowpea and soybean under different intercropping systems. Agronomy Journal 75: 1005-1009.
Amani Machiani, M., Javanmard, A., Morshedloo, M.R., and Maggi, F., 2018. Evaluation of yield, essential oil content and compositions of peppermint intercropped with faba bean. Journal of Cleaner Production 171: 529–537.
Amani Machiani, M., Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E., Javanmard, A., Maggi, F., and Morshedloo, M.R., 2019. Evaluation of common bean seed yield and quali-quantitative production of the essential oils from fennel and dragonhead in intercropping system under humic acid application. Journal of Cleaner Production 235: 112-122.
Arancon, N., Edwards, C., Bierman, P., Welch, C., and Metzger, J.D., 2004. Bioresource Technology. Influences of vermicomposts on field strawberries: 1. Effects on growth and yields. 93(2): 145-153.
Asadi, S., Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E., and Amirnia, R., 2019. Effect of planting pattern and fertilizer source on agronomic characteristics of linseed and chickpea in intercroppng under rainfed conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 21(1): 16-30. (In Persian with English Summary)
Asgharipur, M., and Rafiei, M., 2010. Intercropping of isabgol and lentil as influenced by drought stress. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 9(3): 62-69.
Atiyeh, R., Edwards, M., Subler, C., and Metzger, J.D., 2001. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth. Bioresource Technology 78: 11-20.
Bagheri Shirvan, M., Zaefarian, F., Bicharanlou, B., and Asadi, G.A., 4014. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L.) with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and borage (Borago officinalis L.) under weed infestation. Journal of Agroecology 6(1): 70-83. (In Persian with English Summary)
Beyk Khurmizi, A., Ganjeali, A., Abrishamchi, P., and Parsa, M., 2012. Effect of vermicompost on photosynthesis and transpiration rate and water use efficiency of bean under salinity stress. Journal of Agroecology 4(3): 223-234. (In Persian)
Bigonah, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Jahan, M., 2014. Effects of intercropping on biological yield, percentage of nitrogen and morphological characteristics of coriander and fenugreek. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 3 (12): 369-377. (In Persian)
Darzi, M.T., Ghalavand, A., and Rejali, F., 2009. The effects of biofertilizers application on N, P, K assimilation and seed yield in fennel .Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 1(25): 1-19. (In Persian with English Summary)
Davaran Hagh, E., Mirshekari, B., Ardakani, M., Farahvash, F., and Rejali, F., 2016. Evaluating maize yield and the quality of response to vermicompost, in thiobacillus and foliar application of Fe and Zn. Journal of Agroecology 8(3): 359-372. (In Persian with English Summary)
Eskandari, H., and Ghanbari, A., 2011. Evaluation of competition and complementarity of corn and cowpea intercropping for nutrient consumption. Agricultural Scienc and Sustainable Production 2(21): 67-75. (In Persian with English Summary)
Eslami Khalili, F., Pirdashti, H., Bahmanyar, M.A., and Taghavi Ghsemkheili, F., 2014. Effect of organic and chemical fertilizer on soil properties and nutrient concentration in pot marigold. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 3(30): 476-485. (In Persian with English Summary)
Fallah, S., Rostaei, M., Lorigooini, Z., and Abbasi Surki, A., 2018., Chemical compositions of essential oil and antioxidant activity of dragonhead in sole crop and dragonhead- soybean intercropping system under organic manure and chemical fertilizers. Industrial Crops and Products 115: 158–165.
Ghanbari-Bonjar, H., 2000. Intercropped wheat and bean as a low-input forage. Ph.D. thesis. Wye College. University of London.
Ghosh, P.K., Mohanty, M., Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Painuli, D.K., and Misra A.K., 2005. Growth, competition yield advantage and economics in soyebean/pigeonpea intercropping system in semi-arid tropics of India І. Effect of Subsoiling. Crop Science 96: 80-89.
Hanč, A., Tlustoš, P., Száková, J., and Balík, J., 2008. The influence of organic fertilizers application on phosphorus and potassium bioavailability. Plant Soil and Environment 54(6): 247–254.
Hassanzadeh-Aval, F., Mirhashemi, S. M., Kazemi, M., and Banayan-Aval, M., 2014. Evaluation of advantage, competition and radiation interception and use efficiency of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.) intercropping in Mashhad region in Iran. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 16(3):191-208. (In Persian with English Summary)
Havlin, J.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L., and Nelson, W.L., 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizers: An Introduction to Nutrient Management. Sixth Ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA.
Hosseinpour, R., and Ghajar Sepanloy, M., 2012. Evaluating the intergrated effects of municipal waste compost and chemical fertilizers on micronutrient availability in soil and lettuce. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation 19(3): 123-140. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hosseinzadeh, S.R., Amiri, H., and Ismaili, A., 2017. Effect of vermicompost levels on morphologic traits and nutrient concentration of chickpea under water stress. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences 4(10): 531-545. (In Persian)
Inal, A., Gunes, A., Zhang, F., and Cakmak, I., 2007. Peanut/ maize intercropping induced changes in rhizosphere and nutrient concentrations in shoots. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 20: 1-7.
Khalaj, H., Labbafi, H.A. MR., Hasan Abadi, T., Shaghaghi, J., and Hajiaghaee, R., 2018. A review on the botanical, ecological, agronomical and pharmacological properties of the fennel. Journal Medicinal Plants 1(69): 1-15. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khorramdel, S., Siahmargue, A., and Mahmoodi, G., 2016. Effect of replacement and additive intercropping series of ajowan with bean on yield and yield components. Electronic Journal of Crop Production 1(9): 1-24. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., and Ghafouri, A., 2012. Row intercropping of borage with bean on possible evaluating of the best strip width and assessing of its ecological characteristics. Journal of Agroecology 4: 1-11. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Zarghani, H., and Norooziyan, A., 2016. Comparison of yield and yield components of sunflower, sesame and red bean under different intercropping arrangements. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 2(14): 226-243. (In Persian with English Summary)
Li, W., Li, L., Sun, J., Guo, T., Zhang, F., Bao, X., Peng, A., and Tang, C., 2005. Effects of intercropping and nitrogen application on nitrate present in the profile of an orthicanthrosol in northwest china. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 105: 483-491.
Mafakheri, A., Siosemardeh, A.B., Bahramnejad, P.C., Struik, E., and Sohrabi, B., 2010. Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll content in three chickpea cultivars. Australian Journal Crop Science 4(8): 580–585.
Majnoon Hosseini, N., and Davazdahemami, S., 2007. Cultivation and Production of Certain Herbs and Spices. University of Tehran Press, Iran. 300 pp. (In Persian)
Mardani, F., and Balouchi, H., 2015. Effect of intercropping on the yield and some quantitative and qualitative traits of fenugreek and anise. Agricultural Scienc and Sustainable Production 2(25): 1-16. (In Persian with English Summary)
Marschner, H., 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Second Ed. Academic Press, USA. pp. 248.
Mozaffarian, V., 2013. Identification of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Iran. Farhang Moaser Press. 1350 pp. (In Persian)
Najafi, N., and Mostafae, M., 2015. Improvement of corn plant nutrition by farmyard manure application and intercropping with bean and bitter vetch in a calcareous soil. Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production 5(1): 1-22. (In Persian with English Summary)
Najafi, N., Mostafaei, M., Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A., and Oustan, S., 2013. Effect of intercropping and farmyard manure on the quantity and quality of corn, bean and bitter vetch in a calcareous soil. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 23(1): 99-116. (In Persian with English Summary)
Najafi, N., Mostafaei, M., Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A., and Oustan, S., 2014. Effect of farmyard manure and intercropping of corn with bitter vetch on the bitter vetch seed yield and nutrients contents and concentrations. 1st International and 13th Iranian crop Science Congress 3rd Iranian Seed science and Technology Conference, pp. 1-4. (In Persian with English Summary)
Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1980. Total nitrogen analysis for soil and plant tissues. Journal - Association of Official Analytical Chemists 63: 770-778.
Ofari, F., and Stern, W.R., 1987. Cereal-legume intercropping system. Advance in Agronomy 41: 41-90.
Pakgohar, N., and Ghanbari, A., 2014. Evaluation of competition and nutrient consumption of nutrifid millet and green pea in intercropping. Journal of Crops Improvement 4(15): 137-150. (In Persian with English Summary)
Parsa, M., and Bagheri, A., 2008. Pulses. Mashhad Jadah Daneshghahi Press, Iran. 522 p. (In Persian)
Prabha, M.L., Jayraaj, I.A., Jayraaj, R., and Rao, D.S., 2007. Effective of vermicompost on growth parameters of selected vegetable and medicinal plants. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences 9: 321-326.
Rahmati, E., Khalesro, S. and Heidari, G., 2020. Improving quantitative and qualitative yield of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) in intercropping with fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Journal of Agroecology 11(4): 1261-1273. (In Persian with English Summary)
Raja Sekar, K., and Karmegan, N., 2010. Earthworm casts as an alternate carrier material for biofertilizers assessment of endurance and viability of azotobacter chroococcum, bacillus megaterium and rhizobium ieguminosarum. Scientia Horticulturae 124: 286-289.
Ranjbar, F., Koocheki, A., and Nassiri Mahallati, M., 2016. Effect of intercropping patterns of fennel, sesame and bean on growth, qualitative and quantitative characters and yield components. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science 3(30): 406-416. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rasouli, F., and Maftoun, M., 2010. Residual effects of two organic matters with or without nitrogen on growth and chemical composition of wheat and some soil chemical properties. Journal of Water and Soil 2(24): 262-273. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rejaei, M., Dahmardeh, M., Khammari, I., and Keshtegar, B., 2018. The effect of planting pattern and vermicompost on the changes in soil nutrients and use of environmental resources in intercropping of corn, peanut and borage. Journal of Agroecology 2(10): 547-564. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rezaei–Chiyaneh, E., Amirnia, R., Amani Machiani, M., Javanmard, A., Maggi, F., and Morshedloo, M.R., 2020. Intercropping fennel with common bean as affected by PGPR inoculation: A strategy for improving yield, essential oil and fatty acid composition. Scientia Horticulturae 261: 108951.
Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E., Amirnia, R., Satar Fotohi Chiyaneh, S., Maggi, F., Barin, M., Razavi, S.B., 2021. Improvement of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) yield quality through a coupled intercropping system and vermicompost application along with maintenance of soil microbial activity. Land degradation & developmen 32(9): 2679–2874.
Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E., and Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A., 2014. Evaluation of integrated application of biofertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of ajowan in strip intercropping with of fenugreek. Journal of Agroecology 3(6): 582-594. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sakhavi, S., Amini, R., Shakiba, M.R., and Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A., 2016. Advantage of faba bean and cumin intercropping under organic, biological and chemical fertilizer treatments. Agricultural Scienc and Sustainable Production 4(26): 17-32. (In Persian with English Summary)
Saydi, Z., Fateh, E., and Aynehband, A., 2017. Effect of different sources of nitrogen and organic fertilizers on yield and yield components of ajowan. Journal of Agroecology 9(1): 115-128. (In Persian with English Summary)
Seyyedi, S.M., Khajeh-Hosseini, M., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Shahandeh, H., 2015. Relation between the increasing soluble phosphorus and nitrogen uptake and its effects on phosphorus harvest index of black seed. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 1(46): 25-36. (In Persian with English Summary)
Soleimanpoor, L., Naderi, R., and Najafi Ghiri, M., 2017. Evaluation of metal micronutrients uptake in cereal-legume intercropping. Journal of Crops Improvement 4(18): 1017-1031. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sori, S., Amirnia, R., Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E., and Sheikh, F., 2020. Evaluation of yield and yield components of different faba bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties in intercropping with triticale (Tritico secale). Journal of Agroecology 12(1): 143-159. (In Persian with English Summary)
Szumigalski, A.R., and Van Acker, R.C., 2006. Nitrogen yield and land use efficiency in annual sole crops and intercrops. Agronomy Journal 98: 1030-1040.
Tandon, H.L.S., Cescas, M.P., Tyner, E.H., 1968. An acid-free vanadateemolybdate reagent for the determination of total phosphorus in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 32: 48-51.
Timsina, J., 2018. Can organic sources of nutrients increase crop yields to meet global food demand? Agronomy 8(10): 1-20.
Vafadar-Yengeje, L., Amini, R., and Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A., 2019. Chemical compositions and yield of essential oil of Moldavian balm in intercropping with faba bean under different fertilizers application. Journal of Cleaner Production 239: 118033.
Vafadar-Yengeje, L., Amini, R., and Dabbagh mohammdi Nasab, A., 2018. Yield and yield components of faba bean in intercropping with moldavian balm under organic and chemical fertilizers. Agricultural Scienc and Sustainable Production 4(27): 121-129. (In Persian with English Summary)
Weisanny, W., Raei, Y., Zehtab-Salmasi, S., and Sohrabi, Y., 2016. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on yield and yield components of common bean and dill in mono and intercropping system. Agricultural Scienc and Sustainable Production 3(26): 1-19. (In Persian with English Summary)
Yolcu, H., Gunes, A., Dasci, M., Turan, M., and Serin, Y., 2010. The effects of solid, liquid and combined cattle manure applications on the yield, quality and mineral contents of common vetch and barley intercropping mixture. Journal Ekoloji 19: 71-81.
Zaller, J.G., 2007. Vermicompost as a substitute for peat in potting media effects on germination, biomass allocation, yields and fruit quality of three tomato varieties. Scientia Horticulturae 112: 191-199.
Zhang, F.S., and Li, L., 2003. Using competitive and facilitative interaction in intercropping systems enhances crop productivity and nutrient- use efficiency. Plant and Soil 248: 305-312.
Zhang, Y., Chen, F., Li, L., Chen, Y., Liu, B., Zhou, Y., Yuan, L., Zhang, F., and MI, G., 2012. The role of maize root size in phosphorus uptake and productivity of maize/faba bean and maize/wheat intercropping systems. China Life Science 11: 993-1001.