ارزیابی پتانسیل تولید، کارایی استفاده از منابع و سودمندی اکولوژیکی - اقتصادی در کشت مخلوط لوبیا چیتی (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) و کدو ‌‌پوست ‌کاغذی (Cucurbita pepo L.) در شرایط همزیستی با میکوریزا

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

چکیده

این آزمایش با هدف ارزیابی اثر همزیستی با میکوریزا (Glomus mosseae) بر سودمندی اکولوژیک کشت مخلوط افزایشی لوبیا چیتی با کدو پوست کاغذی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان در سال زراعی 1395 انجام گرفت. الگوی کشت در پنج سطح شامل کشت خالص کدوی پوست کاغذی (با تراکم 22/2 بوته در واحد سطح)، کشت خالص لوبیا چیتی (با تراکم 40 بوته در واحد سطح) و کشت مخلوط سری افزایشی 20، 40 و 60 درصد لوبیا با کدو در دو حالت کاربرد و عدم کاربرد کود زیستی میکوریزا (Glomus mosseae)، تیمارهای آزمایشی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر الگوهای کشت در هر دو حالت کاربرد و عدم کاربرد میکوریزا بر صفات تعداد میوه در بوته، وزن بذر، عملکرد بذر، عملکرد روغن، عملکرد معادل کدو، کارایی مصرف آب و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن کدو و همچنین تعداد غلاف در بوته، وزن 100 دانه و عملکرد دانه لوبیا معنی­دار بود. درصد روغن در کدو و درصد همزیستی در هر دو گیاه نیز در صورت کاربرد میکوریزا معنی­دار بودند. بیشترین عملکرد معادل کدو (26/185 گرم بر مترمربع)، کارایی مصرف آب (72/2 کیلوگرم بر میلی‌متر) و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن (29/10 کیلوگرم بر کیلوگرم) از کشت مخلوط افزایشی 40 درصد لوبیا با کدو و در صورت کاربرد میکوریزا به‌دست آمد. نسبت برابری زمین جزئی در کدو بیشتر از لوبیا بود که بیانگر تأثیرپذیری بیشتر و مثبت کدو از کشت مخلوط با لوبیا است. بیشترین میزان نسبت برابری زمین (61/1)، مجموع ارزش نسبی (83/1)، کارایی استفاده از زمین (27/154) و شاخص بازگشت مالی (14/463) از کشت مخلوط افزایشی 40 درصد لوبیا با کدو و در حالت کاربرد میکوریزا حاصل شد که بیانگر توانایی میکوریزا در تعدیل رقابت لوبیا با کدو می‌باشد. در کل، با توجه به بهبود اجزای عملکرد، عملکرد معادل، کیفیت محصول تولیدی، کارایی مصرف آب و نیتروژن و نیز با عنایت به شاخص­های سودمندی اکولوژیک می­توان اظهار داشت که کشت مخلوط افزایشی 40 درصد لوبیا با کدو در شرایط کاربرد میکوریزا مناسب­ترین تیمار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Production Potential, Resources Use Efficiency, and Economical-Ecological Benefits of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Intercropped with Pepo (Cucurbita pepo L.) using Mycorrhiza

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Hamzei
  • Seyyedeh Fatemeh Hosseini
Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, respectively.
چکیده [English]

Introduction[1]
Demand for food in the world is likely to be nearly two times the current level by 2030, while the amount of new land for cultivating area is very limited (Marzban et al., 2014). Therefore, the design and implementation of systems with stability and performance are highly felt (Hosseini et al., 2016). In agriculture, there are different perspectives for imitation of nature, one example of which is sustainable agriculture. Intercropping is defined as a sustainable agricultural operation in which two or more species grow simultaneously during a season on a piece of land (Amani Machiani et al., 2018). By the way, the use of bio-fertilizers is a method to revive the natural flora of the soil and it is considered as a path to sustainable agriculture (Baqual & Das, 2006). Unfortunately, most conventional agricultural systems based on the high consumption of chemical fertilizers, are deprived of the benefits of coexistence of useful microorganisms with the plant, such as mycorrhiza coexistence. Therefore, it seems that using the intercropping and bio-fertilizer inoculation can be an effective step towards sustainable production in the agricultural lands.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted as factorial mode based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University. Using and non-using of mycorrhiza and 5 cultivation patterns including the pure crop of pumpkin, pure bean cultivation and additive intercropping of 20, 40 and 60% beans with pumpkin were the experimental treatments. The cultivation of both species was carried out on 9.3.2017. At the end of the growth period, harvest was done from each plot after removing the marginal effect, and oil percentage, oil yield, Pepo equivalent yield )PEY(, water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE), the percentage of root clonization, as well as the usefulness indices of the intercropping were measured. The data were analyzed by SAS9.1 and the means were compared using LSD test at a probability level of 5%.
Results and Discussion
The results indicated that the effect of crop pattern in both application and non-application of mycorrhiza were significant on the number of fruits per plant, seed weight, seed yield, oil yield, equivalent yield, water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency in pumpkin, as well as number of pods per plant, the weight of 100 seeds and grain yield of the bean. The percentage of oil in pumpkin and the percentage of root clonization in both plants were also significant in the case of mycorrhiza application. The highest amount of pumpkin equivalent yield, water use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency were obtained from additive intercropping of 40% bean with pumpkin under mycorrhiza application. The partial land equivalent ratio in the pumpkin was higher than that of bean, which can be concluded that the pumpkin cropping is influenced positively by the intercropping with the bean. The highest values of land equivalent ratio (LER(, relative value total )RVT( and Cumulativerelative efficiency index )REIc( were obtained from 40% bean incropped with pumpkin treatment. According to the results of CC, CR, and AG, it can be concluded that the bean is suitable for intercropping with pumpkin. ATER values of more than 1 were obtained in all treatments, except for the additive intercropping of 60% bean with pumpkin in both application and non-application of mycorrhiza. The highest amount of LUE and SPI in the case of application and non-application of mycorrhiza were obtained from additive intercropping of 40 and 20% bean with pumpkin, respectively, indicating the ability of the mycorrhiza to modify the competition of pumpkin with beans.
Conclusion
According to the results of this study it was indicated that in the case of mycorrhiza application, the amount of all traits in the same treatments increased, and the 40% bean intercropped with pumpkin together with the application of mycorrhiza was determined as the superior treatment, which could be considered for the sustainable agriculture development and maintaining the ecosystem health.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizer
  • Equivalent yield
  • Nitrogen use efficiency
  • Planting pattern
  • Water use efficiency
Aboutalebian, M.A., and Malmir, M., 2017. Effect of mycorrhiza and Bradyrhizobium on yield and yield components of soybean in different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Field Crop Science 4(48):901-9011. (In Persian with English Summary)
Agegnehu, G., Ghizaw, A., and Sinebo, W., 2006. Yield performance and land use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Ethiopian highlands. European Journal of Agronomy 25: 202-207.
Alikhan, A., Jilani, G., Saleem Akhtar, M., Saqlan Naqvi, S.M., and Rasheed, M., 2009. Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria: Occurrence, mechanisms and thir role in crop production. Journal of Agricultural and Biological science 1: 48-58.
Allahdadi, M., Shakiba, M.R., Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A., and Amini, R., 2013. Evaluation of yield and advantages of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) and calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) intercropping systems. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production 23(3): 47-58. (In Persian with English Summary)
Al-Mefleh, N.K., Samarah, N., Zaitoun, S., and Al-Ghzawi, A., 2012. Effect of irrigation levels on fruit characteristics, total fruit yield and water use efficiency of melon under drip irrigation system. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 10(2): 540-545.
Amani Machiani, M., Javanmard, A., Morshedloo, M.R., and Maggi, F., 2018. Evaluation of yield, essential oil content and compositions of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) intercropped with faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Cleaner Production 171: 529–537.
Andersen, M.K., Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Ambus, P., and Jensen, E.S., 2004. Biomass production, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and inorganic N use in dual and tricomponent annual intercrops. Plant and Soil 266: 273–287.
Awal, M.A., Pramanik, M.H.R., and Hossen, M.A., 2007. Interspecies competition, growth and yield in barley-peanut intercropping. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6(4): 577-584.
Banik, P., Midya, A., Sarkar, B.K., and Ghose, S.S., 2006. Wheat and chickpea intercropping systems in an additive series experiment: Advantages and weed smothering. European Journal Agronomy 24: 325-332.
Baqual, M.F., and Das, P.K., 2006. Influence of biofertilizers on macronutrient uptake by the mulberry plant and its impact on silkworm bioassay. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science 4: 98-102.
Bargaz, A., Zaman-Allah, M., Farissi, M., Lazali, M., Drevon, J.-J., Maougal, R.T., and Georg, C., 2015. Physiological and molecular aspects of tolerance to environmental constraints in grain and forage legumes. International Journal of Molecular Science 16: 18976–19008.
Bastami, A., and Majidian, M., 2016. Effects of mycorrhiza, phosphatic biofertilizer on photosynthetic pigments and yield in Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Journal of Plant Productions 38: 49-60. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bedoussac, L., Journet, E.P., Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Naudin, C., Corre-Hellou, G., Jensen, E.S., Prieur, L., and Justes, E., 2015. Ecological principles underlying the increase of productivity achieved by cereal-grain legume intercrops in organic farming. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35: 911–935.
Bedoussac, L., and Justes, E., 2011. A comparison of commonly used indices for evaluating species interactions and intercrop efficiency: Application to durum wheat–winter pea intercrops. Field Crops Research 124: 25–36.
Brito, I., Michael Goss, J., and Carvalho M., 2008. Agronomic management of indigenous mycorrhizas. Universidade de Evora, ICAM, Apartado 94: 7002 – 554.
Cardoso, I., and Kuyper M.T.W., 2006. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 116: 72-84.
Connolly, J., 1987. On the use of response models in mixture experiments. Oecologia 72: 95–103.
Dhima, K.V., Lithourgidis, A.S., Vasilakoglou, I.B., and Dordas, C.A., 2007. Competitionindices of common vetch and cereal intercrops in two seeding ratio. Field Crops Research 100: 249–256.
Fruhwirth, G.O., and Hermetter, A., 2008. Production technology and characteristics of styrian pumpkin seed oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 110: 637-644.
Gianinazzi, S., Gollotte, A., Binet, M.N., Van Tuinen, D., Redecker, D., and Wipf, D., 2010. Agroecology: The key role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in ecosystem services. Mycorrhiza 20: 519–530.
Grigulis, K., Lavorel, S., Krainer, U., Legay, N., Baxendale, C., Dumont, M., Kastl, E., Arnoldi, C., Bardgett, R.D., Poly, F., Pommier, T., Schloter, M., Tappeiner, U., Bahn, M., and Clément, J.C., 2013. Relative contributions of plant traits and soil microbial properties to mountain grassland ecosystem services. Journal of Ecology 101: 47–57.
Habibi, A., Heidari, G., Sohrabi, Y., Badakhshan, H., and Mohammadi, K., 2011. Influence of bio, organic and chemical fertilizers on medicinal pumpkin traits. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(23): 5590-5597.
Hamzei, J., 2012. Evaluation of yield, spad index, landuse efficiency and system productivity index of barley (Hordeum vulgare) intercropped with bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia). Journal of Crop Production and Processing 2 (4):79-92. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hamzei, J., and Babaei, M., 2015. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizing on phenology, grain yield and oil of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Hamadan region. Agricultural science and Sustainable Production 2(25): 1-13. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hamzei, J., and Salimi, F., 2014. Root colonization, yield and yield components of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) affected by mycorhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizer. Journal of Agricutural Science and Sustainable Production 24(4): 87-94.
Hashemzadeh, F., Mirshekari, B., Yarnia, M., Rahimzadeh Khoei, F., and Tarinejhad, A., 2014. Effect of bio and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and mycorrhizal colonization percent on common Dill (Anethum graveolens L.). Journal of Crop Ecophysiology 8(3): 257-270.
Heidari, M., and Karami, V., 2014. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 13(1): 9-13.
Hosseini, S.H., Yousefzadeh, S., Yeritsayan, S., and Khodayar, H., 2016. Growth analysis and qualitative traits pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Affected by application of chemical and organic fertilizers. Journal of Plant production Research 23(1): 131-155. (In Persian with English Summary)
Justes, E., Bedoussac, L., Corre-Hellou, G., Fustec, J., Hinsinger, P., Jeuffroy, M.-H., Journet, E.P., Louarn, G., Naudin, C., and Pelzer, E., 2014. Les processus de complémentarité de niche et de facilitation déterminent le fonctionnement des associations végétales et leur efficacité pour l’acquisition des ressources abiotiques. Innovations Agronomiques 1–24.
Kapoor, R., Giri, B., and Mukerji, K.G., 2004. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in foeniculum vulgare Mill. on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with Pfertilizer. Bioresource Technology 93: 307-311.
Latati, M., Blavet, D., Alkama, N., Laoufi, H., Drevon, J.J., Gérard, F., Pansu, M., and Ounane, S.M., 2014. The intercropping cowpea-maize improves soil phosphorus availability and maize yields in an alkaline soil. Plant and Soil 385: 181–191.
Lithourgidis, A.S., Vlachostergios, D.N., Dordas, C.A., and Damalas, C.A., 2011. Dry matter yield, nitrogen content, and competition in pea-cereal intercropping systems. European Journal of Agronomy 34: 287-294.
Marzban, Z., Ameriyan, M.R., and Mamarabadi, M., 2014. Responses of agronomic characteristics of maize and Cowpea tomycorrhiza and Mesorrhizobial Bacteria in intercropping. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology 8:165-180.
Mohammadi, E., Asghari, H., and Gholami, A., 2014. Evaluation the possibility of utilization of bio fertilizer mycorrhiza in phosphorus supply in Chickpea cultivation (Cicer arietinum L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 11(4): 658-665. (In Persian with English Summary)
Moll, R.H., Kamprath, E.J and Jackson, W.A., 1982. Analysis and interpretation of factors which contribute to efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Agronomy Journal 74: 562-564.
Naghizade, M., Ramroodi, M., Galavi, M., Siahsar, B., Heydari, M., and Maghsoodi, A.A., 2012. The Effects of various phosphorus fertilizers on yield and yield components of maize and Grass Pea intercropping. Iranian Journal of Field crop science 43(2):203-215. (In Persian with English Summary)
Nazari-Nasi, H, Amirnia, R., and Zardashti, M., 2018. Effect of drought stress and biofertilizers on some physiological characteristics and grain yield of medicinal pumpkin plants. Journal of Agricultural Crops Production 20(1).
Omidi, F., and Sepehri, A., 2015. Effect of sodium nitroprusside application on leaf area, growth and water use efficiency of kidney bean under water deficit stress. Journal of Crops Improvement (Journal of Agriculture) 16(4): 871-885. (In Persian with English Summary)
Parsa, M., and Bagheri, A., 2008. Pulse. Jahade-e-Daneshghahi Mashhad Press, Iran. 828 pp. (In Persian)
Philips, J. M., and Hayman, D.S., 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of British Mycological Society 55: 158-161.
Rahmani, M., Zavareh, M., Hamidi, I., and Hoogenboom, G., 2017. Effect of planting date and density on yield and commercial qualities of hybrid seed production of maize (Zea mays L. Cv. SC 704). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 49(2): 93-103. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E., Tajbakhsh, M., Valizadegan, O., and Banaei-Asl, F., 2014. Evaluation of different intercropping patterns of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) in double crop. Journal of Agroecology 5(4): 462-472. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Moradi, R., 2012. Assessment of planting date, biological fertilizer and intercropping on yield and essential oil of cumin and fenugreek. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 2: 217-230. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rokhzadi, A., Asgharzadeh, A., Darvish, F., Nour-Mohammadi, G., and Majidi, E., 2008. Influence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on dry matter accumulation and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under field condition. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 3: 253- 257.
Sepehri, A., and Karami, A., 2013. Integrative applications of chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers on grain yield and oil of Borago officinalis L. under water deficit stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 43(4): 691-699. (In Persian with English Summary)
Singh, M., Singh, U.B., Ram, M., Yadav, A., and Chanotiya, C.S., 2013. Biomass yield, essential oil yield and quality of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) as influenced by intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) under subtropical and temperate climate of India. Industrial Crops and Products 46: 234-237.
Singh, N.V., Singh, S.K., Singh, A.K., Meshram, D.T., Suroshe, S.S., and Mishra, D.C., 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Scientia Horticulturae 136: 122–127.
Snaydon, R.W., 1991. Replacement or additive design for competition studies. Journal of Applied Ecology 28: 930–946.
Szumigalski, A.R., and Van Acker, R.C., 2006. Nitrogen yield and land use efficiency in annual sole crops and intercrops. Agronomy Journal 98: 1030-1040.
Wahla, I.H., Ahmad, R., Ehsanullah, Ahmad, A., and Jabbar, A., 2009. Competitive functions of components crops in some barley based intercropping systems. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 11(1): 69-72.
Willey, R.W., 1979. Intercropping its importance and research needs: Part I. Competition and yield advantage. Field Crop Abstracts 32: 1–10.
Zegada-Lizarazu, W., Izumi, Y., and Iijima, M., 2006. Water competition of intercropped pearl millet with cowpea under drought and soil compaction stresses. Plant Production Science 9: 123–132.