بررسی مدیریت تغذیه‌گیاهی (کودهای ارگانیک، غیرارگانیک و تلفیقی): برمیزان تجمع و تعادل عناصر ماکرو و میکرو در دانه گندم ‌(Triticum aestivum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

این پژوهش به‌منظور تغذیه صحیح گیاه که یکی از اصول اولیه دستیابی به کشاورزی پایدار بوده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل در آبان‌ماه سال 1392 اجرا شد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی شامل: T1: شاهد، T2: کود دامی گاوی، T3: کود ورمی‌کمپوست، T4: کود شیمیایی ‌NPK، T5: کود ورمی‌کمپوست توأم با نیتروکسین، T6: کود دامی توأم با کود نیتروکسین، T7: کود دامی توأم با کود شیمیایی ‌NPK که با نسبت‌های مساوی در بررسی صفات کمی و کیفی گندم (Triticum aestivumL.) رقم سیستان، با کاربرد انواع کودها مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که سیستم‌های مختلف کودی بر تمام خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، به جزء وزن هزار‌‌‌‌دانه در سطح (p≤0/01)، معنی‌دار گردید به‌طوری‌که تیمار کودهای شیمیایی موجب افزایش‌20/16‌درصدی ارتفاع گیاه و کودهای تلفیقی موجب افزایش60‌/‌11درصدی وزن هزار‌‌دانه، نسبت به شاهد گردید. بیشترین و کمترین میزان عملکرد دانه با مقادیر3440‌ و 1835‌کیلوگرم در هکتار، به‌ترتیب متعلق به تیمارهای سیستم تلفیقی کود دامی توأم با کود شیمیایی و تیمار شاهد بوده است. غلظت عناصر‌دانه در سطح (p≥0/01)، به‌غیر‌از منیزیم که در استفاده از سیستم‌های تغذیه‌ای مختلف در یک سطح قرار داشتند معنی‌دار گردید، به‌طوری‌که کودهای شیمیایی، نیتروژن و فسفر به‌ترتیب‌‌78/48‌ و ‌139‌ درصد و کود دامی توأم با کود شیمیایی، پتاسیم دانه را به‌میزان 76/30‌ درصد، کودهای دامی، آهن، سدیم و روی به‌ترتیب به‌میزان82‌/58، 48/40، 49/‌‌7 ‌‌نسبت به تیمار شاهد افزایش داده است. کودهای شیمیایی کلسیم را به‌میزان10‌/16‌درصدی نسبت به شاهد کاهش داده. بنابراین، بهبود تغذیه گیاه از طریق مصرف بهینه کودهای تلفیقی، زیستی، آلی، علاوه بر‌‌افزایش کمی و کیفی محصولات کشاورزی، می‌توان وضعیت تغذیه‌ای انسان و کمبود عناصر را جبران کرده و به‌دلیل تعادل عناصر‌غذایی، سبب بهبود کارکرد بدن و نیاز به مکمل‌ها را کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

مInvestigating Management Plant Nutrition (Organic and Inorganic and Blended Fertilizers): on the Accumulation and Balance Elements Macro and Micro in Wheat Seed (Triticum aestivum L)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Amjadian
  • Ahmad Ghanbari
  • Issa Khamari
University of Zabol
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The growing world population and increased need for food security, leading to great developments in the is agriculture and promoted.fertilizers substance the element or elements needed by plants directly into the soil and the optimum growth and maximum product quality result.fertilizer management is an important process because the right combination of fertilizer for agricultural production is cause production food with minimal losses.Choice a proper fertilizer management to programs, the environment, to prevent pollution of land and water and air depends. to excursion elements play a fundamental role in ecosystem functioning and rotating elements, while energya track,just the non-cyclical flows, that humanthe end of the food chain remains so because healthy soil and plant healthy, healthy plants and will provide human health.
Materials and Methods
The study, to evaluate the elements in wheat under different fertilizer systems, In format of randomized complete block design with three replications, during the crop Year 2013-2014, the Agricultural Research Station, University of Zabol (Chahnymh) that 35 kilometers is Zabol was conducted. In terms of geographical location of 61 degrees and 41 minutes east longitude and 30 degrees, 54 minutes north latitude and altitude of 480 meter of sea level. The weather it has cold winters and dry, and hot summers and dry, that according to category coupons and amberger ingredient weather warm and dry is considered. treatments contains: T1: control (no fertilizer), T2: cow manure, T3: vermi compost fertilizer, T4: chemical fertilizer, T5:vermicompost+ nitroxin fertilizer, T6: cow manure and nitroxin fertilizer, T7: cow manure and chemical fertilizer.direction calculation the analysis of statistical data obtained at first to software excel transmit and after assurance the of normality to be data, the results with using the of statistical software SAS, version 9.1, and variance analysis, the by means test duncan, at the level 5 percent, were compared.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that different fertilizer systems on the all morphological characteristics of wheat, with the exception the weight of one thousand seeds surface (P≤0/01) was significant. So that chemical fertilizers, cause the increased 16.20 percent, plant height and consolidated fertilizers cause Increased 11.60 percent the weight one thousand seeds compared was the control treatment. The highest and lowest grain yield with values the highest and lowest grain yield with values 3440 and 1835 kg.h-1, respectively belong to treatments, system blended manure and chemical fertilizers, and treatment control.concentration of grain elements on the surface (P≤0/01), with the exception of Mg, that at use of different nutritional systems at one surface, was significant. So that chemical fertilizers, N and P, respectively 48.78 and 139 Percent and cow manure and chemical fertilizer the potassium seed 30.76 percent, cow manure, Fe, Na and Zn, respectively 58.82, 40.48, 7.49 has increased compared to control. chemical fertilizers Ca to the 16.10 percent compared to control, reduce.thus improving plant nutrition through optimal use of fertilizers blended, bio, organic, quality and quantity in addition to increasing of agricultural products, the human nutritional status, the lack of elements compensate and balance nutrient elements cause improve body function, and reduce the need to supplement.
Conclusion
Chemical fertilizers combined with farmyard manure, greatest impact on increasing yield and its components have. The results imply comparative advantage cow manure and chemical fertilizer that The is an integrated fertilizer, and of opinion increase characteristics morphological and increase yield and its components superior to chemical fertilizers have the is advantage.
Acknowledgements
This is required by the respected institute for agricultural chahnymh personnel affiliated with the university of Zabol in the study have cooperated appreciate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological fertilizers
  • Chemical Fertilizers
  • Cow manure
  • Human health
  • Sustainable agriculture
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