تأثیر کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست و محلول‌پاشی برگی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه دارویی اسفرزه (Plantago ovata L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

ولی عصر (عج) رفسنجان

چکیده

یکی از راهکارهای مناسب برای بهبود کیفیت محصولات کشاورزی به کارگیری کودهای آلی در تولید محصولات می‌باشد. بر این اساس به منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد کود ورمی‌کمپوست و محلول‌پاشی چای‌کمپوست و اسید ‌هیومیک بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد در گیاه اسفرزه (Plantago ovata L.) آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ولی‌عصر (عج) رفسنجان در سال 1392 انجام شد. تیمارها شامل کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست (صفر، 4، 8، 12 و 16 تن در هکتار) به عنوان فاکتور اول و محلول‌پاشی (آب مقطر به عنوان شاهد، چای‌کمپوست و اسید‌هیومیک) به عنوان فاکتور دوم بود. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست تأثیر معنی‌داری بر سطح برگ، وزن خشک اندام هوایی، تعداد سنبله، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد موسیلاژ و عملکرد دانه داشت. به‌طوری‌که بیشترین عملکرد دانه (9/45 گرم در متر‌مربع) از تیمار 16 تن در هکتار ورمی‌کمپوست به‌دست آمد که اختلاف معنی‌داری با تیمار 8 و 12 تن در هکتار ورمی‌کمپوست نداشت و کمترین آن از شاهد (7/23 گرم در متر-مربع) به‌دست آمد. همچنین محلول‌پاشی چای‌کمپوست عدد اسپد، سطح برگ، وزن خشک اندام هوایی، تعداد سنبله، تعداد دانه و عملکرد موسیلاژ را به طور معنی‌داری افزایش داد و بیشترین عملکرد دانه (6/44 گرم در متر‌مربع) نیز از محلول‌پاشی چای‌کمپوست به‌دست آمد. در مجموع از لحاظ اقتصادی، کاربرد کود زیستی ورمی‌کمپوست به میزان هشت تن در هکتار و محلول‌پاشی چای‌کمپوست برای افزایش عملکرد دانه و اجزای آن در گیاه اسفرزه مناسب به‌نظر می‌رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Vermi-compost Fertilizer Application and Foliar Spraying on Yield and Yield Component of Isabgol (Plantago ovate L.) Medicinal Plant

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asghar Rahimi
  • ali akbar pour mohamadi
vali asr rafsanjan
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Vermi-compost is the ability of some species of earthworms to consume and break down a wide range of organic residues such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, crop residues and industrial refuse. Vermi-composts are usually more stable than their parent materials with increased availability of nutrients and improved physicochemical and microbiological properties. Aerial compost tea contains high populations of live microorganism consisting of rhizobactria, trichoderma and pseudomonas species which increase the growth and yield of the plant. Acid humic is the main humic substance and the important ingredient of soil organic matter (humus) which causes increase of yield and quality of crop. The aim of this research is evaluating the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of compost tea and acid humic on yield, yield component and mucilage content of isabgol. Vermiwash as the extract of vermi-compost is liquid organic fertilizer obtained from unit of vermiculture and vermi-compost as drainage. It is used as a foliar spraying on the leaf. Vermiwash stimulate and increase the yield of crop products and foliar application of vermiwash can be caused of plant resistance to different factors and can prevent leaf necrosis.
Material and Methods
In order to study the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of tea compost and acid humic on growth indices of isabgol (Plantago ovata), an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on complete randomized design with three replications in agricultural research farm at Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments were included application of vermi-compost (0 (control), 4, 8, 12 and 16 t.ha-1) and 3 levels of foliar application (distilled water as control, acid humic and compost tea). Samples for evaluating of yield, yield components and mucilage content were taken from 1 m2 area of each treatment. Tea compost solution prepared using mix of vermi-compost, acid humic, yeast and alga extract which were soaked in water for 24 hours under aerated condition using air pump. For preparation of tea compost, 500 g of vermi-compost, 25 cc humic acid, 5 g yeast, 25 cc seaweed extract, 25 cc sugar beet molasses were hanging in a fine lace fabric in 50-liter plastic water container for 24 hours while the air was flowing to container and the liquid extract separated as compost tea with fine lace fabric.
Results and Discussion
Analyze of variance showed that the effect of different levels of vermi-compost and foliar application on the spike number, mucilage yield and seed yield were significant but their interaction have no significant effect. Seed number, mucilage percent and SPAD number significantly affected by foliar application treatments but the vermi-compost treatments and their interactions had no significant effect on them. Also different levels of vermi-compost, foliar application and their interaction have significantly effect on leaf area and dry weight. Vermi-compost have available plant nutrient solution which increase leaf area indices compared with none use vermi-compost treatment. Arancon et al. (2004) reported that using 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermi-compost significantly increased leaf area and shoot dry matter in strawberry.
Conclusion
The results of this research showed that the highest dry weight, spike number, harvest index, mucilage yield and seed yield observed in 16 t.ha-1 application of vermi-compost whit no significant difference related to 8 and 12 t.ha-1 vermi-compost. It is also resulted that foliar application of tea compost significantly affected SPAD, leaf area, shoot dry weight, spike number, seed and mucilage yield. Totally, it seems that using biological fertilizer (vermi-compost) in amount of 8 t.ha-1 with foliar application of tea compost economically would be suitable for increasing seed yield and yield component of isabgol.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Inflation factor
  • Harvest index
  • Mucilage
  • SPAD
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