اثر روش‌های مدیریت غیرشیمیایی بر جمعیت و تنوع علف‌های هرز در مزرعه اسفناج (Spinacia oleraceae L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی اثر روش‌های مختلف مدیریت علف‌های هرز بر جمعیت، تراکم، وزن خشک و شاخص تنوع شانون- وینر علف‌های هرز در مزرعه اسفناج (Spinacia oleraceae L.)، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 92-1391 در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل آفتاب‌دهی با صفحات پلی‌اتیلن تیره و شفاف، بقایای سه گونه گیاهی آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.)، جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) و سیر (Allium sativum L.)، وجین دستی و شاهد (بدون کنترل علف‌های هرز) بودند. صفحات پلی‌اتیلن دو ماه قبل از کاشت اسفناج پس از آبیاری زمین در حد ظرفیت زراعی روی سطح خاک کشیده شدند. بعد از آماده‌سازی زمین، 5000 کیلوگرم در هکتار از بقایای هر گونه گیاهی به خاک اضافه شد. وجین دستی علف‌های هرز طی دو نوبت در اواخر پاییز و اواخر زمستان قبل از بسته شدن کانوپی اسفناج انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری از جمعیت علف‌های هرز طی سه مرحله زمان کاشت، اول اسفند ماه و قبل از برداشت اسفناج انجام گردید. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل تراکم نسبی، تراکم و وزن خشک و شاخص تنوع شانون- وینر علف‌های هرز بودند. نتایج نشان داد که طی سه نوبت نمونه-برداری 23 گونه علف هرز در مزرعه اسفناج مشاهده شد که شب‌بوئیان غالب‌ترین تیره بودند. در مرحله اول، دوم و سوم کمترین تعداد گونه علف‌هرز در تیمار آفتابدهی با صفحات پلی‌اتیلن تیره با دو گونه به‌دست آمد. اثر روش‌های مدیریت غیرشیمیایی بر تراکم، وزن خشک و شاخص تنوع شانون- وینر علف‌های هرز در هر سه مرحله نمونه‌برداری معنی‌دار (01/0p≤) بود. در مرحله اول، دوم و سوم نمونه‌برداری کمترین تراکم علف‌های هرز در تیمار آفتابدهی با صفحات پلی‌اتیلن تیره (به‌ترتیب با 3/8، 6/5 و 7/16 گونه بر متر‌مربع) و بیشترین تراکم برای شاهد (به‌ترتیب با 4/94، 9/63 و 7/116 گونه بر متر‌مربع) مشاهده شد. همچنین اگرچه مصرف بقایای گیاهی تراکم و وزن خشک علف‌های هرز را نسبت به شاهد کاهش داد، ولی این کاهش برای بقایای جو بیش از سایر بقایای گیاهی بود. بالاترین شاخص تنوع شانون- وینر علف‌های هرز در مرحله اول، دوم و سوم برای شاهد به‌ترتیب با 81/0، 76/0 و 7/0 و کمترین میزان در تیمار صفحات پلی اتیلن تیره به‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Non-chemical Weed Management Strategies on Population and Diversity Index for Weeds in Spinach

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza ghorbani
  • Surur Khorramdel
  • G.A Asadi
  • R African
Ferodwsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Weeds are often recognized as the most serious threat to crop production especially vegetables. Competition from weeds is the most important factor that decline agricultural crop yield. Spinach is one of the most important summer vegetables. It has an extremely high nutritional value and is rich in antioxidants. This vegetable is also an excellent source of vitamin K, vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid as well as being a good source of manganese, magnesium, iron and vitamin B2.
The reduction in yield of some vegetables caused by the uncontrolled growth of weeds estimated 49% in cauliflower, 80% in okra and 91% in onion. Enhancing application of chemical herbicides to manage agricultural weeds is in a primary concern today. Widespread herbicide application use during the last few decades has caused serious ecological, environmental and biological hazards such as crop loss, decreasing biodiversity, reducing food quality, weed dominance and weed resistance. Therefore, all those operations of weeds which can prevent germination and surpass growth of weeds and improve crop competitiveness must be integrated to control weeds.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate different weed management methods on population, density, dry weight and Shannon-Weiner diversity index for weeds in spinach field.
Material and Methods
An experiment was performed based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2012-2013. Treatments were solarization with dark and transparent sheets, crop residues of sunflower, barley and garlic, hand weeding and control (without weeding). Polyethylene sheets were placed on the soil surface after irrigation based on field capacity at two months before planting time of spinach. After land operation, 5000 kg ha-1 crop residues of each species were added to the soil. Hand weeding was carried out at the end of fall and winter before canopy closure. Weed samplings were done at three stages including planting time, 19th February and before harvest stage. Relative density, density, dry weight and Shannon-Weiner diversity of weeds were measured and calculated.
The treatments were run as an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if significant differences existed among treatments means. Multiple comparison tests were conducted for significant effects using the LSD test.

Results and Discussion
The weeds flora infesting the spinach field were abyssinian finger grass, alyssum, barnyard grass, black nightshade, blackgrass, Canada thistle, charlock, common amaranth, common chickweed, common knotgrass, common lambsquarters, common purslane, corn flower, delphinium, field bindweed, field milk-thistle, flixweed, fumitory, Hoary cress, nut grass, prostrate amaranth, Russian knapweed, shepherd's-purse and Syrian mustard that Brassicaceae was the most dominant family. The lowest weed number was obtained for dark polyethylene with two species at the first, second and third samplings. The effect of non-chemical weed management methods were significant (p≤0.01) on weed density, dry weight and Shannon-Weiner diversity index at three sampling stages. The lowest weed density for the first, second and third stages were achieved in dark polyethylene (with 8.3, 5.6 and 16.7 species m-2, respectively) and the highest was for control (with 94.4, 63.9 and 116.7 species m-2, respectively. Although crop residues reduced weed density and dry weight for total sampling stages but, the highest decrease was for barley residues. The maximum Shannon- Weiner diversity for weeds for the first, second and third samplings were calculated in control with 0.81, 0.76 and 0.7 and the minimum was for dark polyethylene.
Conclusion
Non-chemical weed management strategies had significant effect on density, dry weight and biodiversity indices of weeds in spinach. Soil solarization with dark and transparent sheets, Cover crops and crop residues provided economic control of soil-borne pests and weeds, enhanced the physical and chemical properties of the soil, increased the yield of spinach and is cost-effective. Generally, soil solarization is a safe and effective technique for weed control that may decrease the necessity for chemical approaches to crop and soil.
Acknowledgement
This research (23340.2) was funded by Vice Chancellor for Research of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, which is hereby acknowledged.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop residue
  • Hand weeding
  • Shannon- Weiner diversity index
  • Solarization
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