ارزیابی کشت مخلوط تأخیری و مالچ کلشی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد کدوی پوست کاغذی (Cucurbita pepo L.) و نخود (Cicer arientinum L.) در شرایط دیم و آبی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه تأثیر سیستم های مختلف کشت و کاربرد مالچ در کشت مخلوط تأخیری کدوی پوست کاغذی (Cucurbita pepo L.) با نخود (Cicer arientinum L.)، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 90-1389 به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. سیستم کشت در پنج سطح شامل کشت خالص نخود آبی، کشت خالص نخود دیم، کشت خالص کدوی پوست کاغذی، کشت مخلوط تأخیری نخود آبی/ کدوی پوست کاغذی، کشت مخلوط تأخیری نخود دیم/ کدوی پوست کاغذی و مالچ نخود در دو سطح با مالچ و بدون مالچ مد نظر قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که ارتفاع بوته، تعداد غلاف در بوته، عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه و وزن هزار دانه نخود به طور معنی داری (05/0≥p) تحت تأثیر سیستم های مختلف کشت قرار گرفتند. به طوری که تعداد غلاف در بوته و عملکرد دانه نخود تیمار کشت مخلوط تأخیری نخود دیم/ کدوی پوست کاغذی نسبت به کشت خالص نخود دیم به ترتیب 37 و 23 درصد افزایش یافت. همچنین اثر متقابل سیستم کشت و کاربرد مالچ بر تعداد میوه، عملکرد میوه، تعداد دانه در میوه، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه کدوی پوست کاغذی معنی دار (05/0≥p) بود، به طوری که سیستم کشت مخلوط تأخیری نخود آبی/ کدوی پوست کاغذی همراه با کاربرد مالچ با 398 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین عملکرد دانه کدو را به خود اختصاص داد. درصد روغن دانه کدوی پوست کاغذی تحت تأثیر تیمار ها قرار نگرفت. با این وجود، کاربرد مالچ باعث کاهش جزئی درصد روغن شد. ارزیابی نسبت برابری زمین نشان داد که سیستم های مخلوط تأخیری بر کشت خالص برتری داشتند و سیستم کشت مخلوط تأخیری نخود دیم/ کدوی پوست کاغذی بدون کاربرد مالچ بیشترین نسبت برابری زمین (37/2) را به خود اختصاص داد. به طور کلی، با توجه به تأثیر مثبت کشت مخلوط تأخیری به خصوص در شرایط دیم بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود و همچنین بهبود خصوصیات کمی گیاه دارویی کدوی پوست کاغذی، چنین می توان استنباط کرد که کشت مخلوط تأخیری می تواند به عنوان راهکاری مناسب جهت استفاده بهتر از منابع برای دستیابی به عملکرد مطلوب در راستای دستیابی به اصول کشاورزی پایدار مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the effects of relay intercropping of Styrian pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) with irrigated and rainfed chickpea (Cicer arietimum L.) on yield and yield components as affected by chickpea residue mulch

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Momen
  • R Ghorbani
  • M Nassiri Mahallati
  • Gh Asadi
  • M Parsa
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of cropping systems and mulch application in relay intercropped Styrian pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growing season of 2010-2011. Treatments were five levels of cropping systems (monoculture of irrigated chickpea, monoculture of rainfed chickpea, monoculture of Styrian pumpkin, relay intercropping of irrigated chickpea/Styrian pumpkin, relay intercropping of rainfed chickpea/Styrian pumpkin) and two levels of chickpea residue mulches (with and without mulch). The results showed that plant height, number of pods per plant, biological yield, seed yield and 1000-seed weight chickpea were affected by different cropping systems (p≤0.05). Relay intercropping of rainfed chickpea/Styrian pumpkin increased number of pod per plant and seed yield of chickpea up to 37 and 23% compared to monoculture of rainfed chickpea, respectively. In additrion, results showed that the interaction effects between cropping systems and mulch application were significant (p≤0.05) on number of fruit, fruit yield, number of seed per fruit, 1000-seed weight and seed yield of Styrian pumpkin. The highest Styrian pumpkin seed yield (398 kg.ha-1) was shown in relay intercropping of irrigated chickpea/Styrian pumpkin. Styrian pumpkin seed oil percent was not affected by treatments (p≥0.05). However, application of chickpea residue mulch reduced the oil percent. Assessment of land equivalent ratio showed that the total systems of relay intercropping was superior compared to ‎‎monocultures and the highest land equivalent ratio (2.37) was observed in relay intercropping of rainfed chickpea/Styrian pumpkin without mulch ‎system.‎ In general, the positive effect of intercropping on yield and yield components of chickpea, especially in the dry conditions and improved quantitative characterization of Styrian pumpkin herb, it can be inferred that the relay intercropping could be a suggested strategy for using resources to achieve optimal performance in order to achieve sustainable agricultural principles.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • LER
  • Medicinal plants
  • Oil percent
  • Resource utilization
  • Sustainable agriculture
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