عوامل مؤثر بر تراکم جمعیت علف‬های‬هرز و کاهش عملکرد ناشی از آنها در گندم: مطالعه موردی استان گلستان- بندرگز

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد گرگان

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گلستان

چکیده

به‬منظور بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر تراکم علف‬های‬هرز و کاهش عملکرد ناشی از آنها در گندم دیم، آزمایشی به‬صورت پیمایشی با استفاده از 45 مزرعه گندم در شهرستان بندرگز(روستای سرمحله) در سال 1391 انجام گردید. نمونه‬برداری از گندم و علف‬های‬هرز در دو مرحله (سنبله‬دهی و رسیدگی) به‬صورت تصادفی از پنج نقطه از هر مزرعه با استفاده از کوادراتی به ابعاد 1*1 متر انجام شد. در این تحقیق کلیه اطلاعات مربوط به مدیریت زراعی شامل مساحت اراضی، تجربه کشاورزان، عملیات تهیه بستر بذر، تاریخ‬کاشت، روش کاشت، رقم مورد استفاده، محل تهیه بذر، میزان بذر مصرفی، روش مبارزه با علف‬‬هرز، نوع، مقدار و زمان مصرف علف‬کش و قارچ‬کش و زمان برداشت گندم، در قالب پرسش‎نامه و در طول فصل رشد از طریق پرسش از کشاورزان جمع‎آوری و تکمیل شد. در پایان فصل رشد میزان عملکرد واقعی برداشت‬شده توسط کشاورزان، ثبت گردید. از میان پارامترهای مختلف مورد بررسی تراکم بوته، تراکم سنبله، سابقه کشاورز، نوع رقم و استفاده از علف‬کش تاپیک+گرانستار تأثیر معنی‬داری بر جمعیت علف‬های‬هرز داشتند. با افزایش تراکم بوته گندم در واحد سطح، تراکم علف‬هرز کاهش یافت. هم‬چنین در مزارع کشاورزان با سابقه بیشتر تراکم علف‬هرز کمتر بود. در مزارع تحت کشت رقم N8118در مقایسه با N8019 تراکم علف‬های‬هرز کمتر بود و عدم استفاده از علفکش تاپیک+گرانستار، منجر به افزایش تراکم علف‬هرز شد. در میان گونه‬های مختلف علف‬هرز ، یولاف‬وحشی، علف‬خونی و خردل‬وحشی، بیشترین تأثیر منفی بر عملکرد گندم را در پی داشتند. بررسی مدل نشان می‬دهد که در شرایطی که تراکم بوته گندم در حد مطلوب باشد و این علف‬های‬هرز نیز وجود داشته باشد عملکرد حاصله برابر 2713 کیلوگرم در هکتار خواهد بود و در صورت حذف آنها عملکرد به 2877 کیلو گرم در هکتار افزایش می یابد (خلأ عملکردی معادل 164 کیلوگرم در هکتار). در میان گونه‬های حاضر، 12 بوته علف‬خونی در مترمربع، 3 بوته خردل‬وحشی در مترمربع و 2 بوته یولاف‬وحشی در مترمربع به ترتیب با 65، 18 و 17 درصد کاهش عملکرد قوی‬ترین رقبا برای گندم بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Factors affecting the population density of weeds and yield loss of them in wheat: a case study in Golestan province – Bandargaz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamad Zaman Nekahi 1
  • A. Soltani 2
  • Asieh siahmarguee 2
  • N. Bagherani 3
1 Islamic Azad University, Grgan
2 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
3 Agricultural Research Center of Golestan Province, Gorgan
چکیده [English]

To investigate the factors affecting the population density of weeds and yield loss of them in wheat, a non systematic survey experiment was conducted in 45 fields in the township of Bandar-gaz (Sarmahaleh village) in 2012. Sampling of wheat and weeds were taken in two stages (Heading and Harvest maturity) by randomized to the five points of each field using quadrate size 1m*1m. In this study all information about crop management including Land area , farmers experience , the seed bed preparation, sowing date , cultivar and site preparation of them, sowing ways , seed rate , weeds control ways , kind , amount and time of herbicide , fungicide use and wheat harvest time were collected during a growing season by preparing questionnaire and complete them with farmers. At the end of the growing season, the actual yield harvested by farmers’ ‬ recorded. Among the various parameters, Wheat plant and raceme density, farmer experience, Kind of variety and use of Tapic+Geranestar herbicide had significant effects on weed population. With increased wheat plant density, weed density decreased. Also there was less weed density in field of high experience farmer. Weed density was lesser in N8118 variety than N8019 variety and not use Tapic+granestar herbicide due to increased of weeds density. Among weed different species, Avena sp, Phalaris minor and Sinapis arvense had highest negative effect on wheat yield. Model study showed if wheat plant density was optimum and there were weeds, yield will be 2713kg/ha and if weeds remove yield will increase to 2877kg/ha (yield gap equal164kg/ha). Amaong weed, Phalaris minor (12 plant per m-2), Sinapis arvensis (3plant per m-2) and Avena sp (2 plant per m-2) with 65, 18 and 17% yield loss respectively, were the strongest competitor with wheat.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop management
  • Weeds
  • Yield loss
  • Avena sp
  • Sinapis arvensis
  • Phalaris minor
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