اثر ورمی‌کمپوست و کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد رویشی و اسانس ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) در شرایط آب و هوایی مشهد

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد مشهد

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه اثرات ورمی کمپوست و کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد رویشی و اسانس ریحان Ocimum basilicum L.)) آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مشهد در سال زراعی 89-1388 اجرا شد. تیمار های آزمایش شامل 1- ورمی کمپوست، 2- نیتروکسین (حاوی باکتری های Azotobacter sp. و Azospirillum sp.)، 3- بیوفسفر (حاوی باکتری های Pseudomonas sp. و Bacillus sp.)، 4- ورمی-کمپوست+ نیتروکسین، 5- ورمی کمپوست+ بیوفسفر، 6- نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفر، 7- ورمی کمپوست+ نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفر، 8- کود شیمیایی (N.P.K) و 9- شاهد (بدون کود) بودند. در طی فصل رشد دو چین در مرحله رشدی یکسان برداشت شد. نتایج آزمایش حاکی از برتری معنی دار ترکیب‌های کودی زیستی و ورمی‌ ورمی کمپوست نسبت به شاهد و شیمیایی در بسیاری از صفات اندازه گیری شده در هردو چین بود. در چین اول بیشترین عملکرد تازه (8/11377 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و خشک (6/1895 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در گیاهان تحت تیمار ورمی کمپوست+ نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفر مشاهده شد و تیمارهای ورمی کمپوست+ نیتروکسین و ورمی کمپوست+ بیوفسفر بیشترین تأثیر را در افزایش عملکرد خشک برگ (به ترتیب 7/1164 و 8/1166 کیلوگرم در هکتار) داشتند. در چین دوم بیشترین عملکرد تازه کل اندام هوایی (3/11333 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در گیاهان تحت تیمار ورمی+ نیتروکسین+ بیوفسفر، و بیشترین عملکرد خشک کل اندام هوایی و عملکرد خشک برگ (به ترتیب 8/2017 و 4/1103 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار ورمی کمپوست+ نیتروکسین مشاهده شد. بیشترین درصد اسانس در هر دو چین در گیاهان تحت تیمار شاهد (به ترتیب 2/1 و 23/1 درصد در چین اول و دوم) حاصل شد. بر اساس نتایج این مطالعه، ورمی کمپوست و کودهای زیستی به تنهایی و یا در ترکیب با یکدیگر تاثیری در افزایش درصد اسانس نداشتند، ولی عملکرد رویشی را افزایش دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of biological fertilizer and vermicompost on vegetative yield and essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under Mashhad climatic conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Rezaee Moadab
  • S.M. Nabavi Kalat
  • R. Sadrabadi Haghaghi
Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of vermicompost and biological fertilizers on vegetative yield and essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), an experiment was conducted based on a complete randomized block design with nine treatments and three replications at Mashhad during growing season of 2009-2010. The treatments were: 1) vermicompost, 2) Nitroxin (included: Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp.), 3) biophosphorus (Included: Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp), 4) Vermicompost+ Nitroxin, 5) vermicompost+ biophosphorus, 6) Nitroxin+ biophosphorus, 7) vermicompost+ Nitroxin+ biophosphorus, 8) chemical fertilizer (N.P.K), 9) control (no fertilizer). Two harvests were cut at similar phonological stage during growing season. The results showed that at both cutting of basil, biological fertilizer combined with vermicompost were better compared to chemical fertilizer and control. In the first harvest, the highest fresh (11377.8 kg.ha-1) and dry yields (1895.6 kg.ha-1) obtained in vermicompost+ Nitroxin+ Biophosphorus treatment. Also, vermicompost+ Nitroxin and vermicompost+ biophosphorus produced the highest leaf dry yield (1164.7 and 1166.8 kg.ha-1 respectively). In second cutting, the highest fresh yield (11333.3 kg.ha-1) obtained in vermicompost+ Nitroxin+ biophosphorus and the highest dry yield (2017.8 kg.ha-1) and leaf dry weight (1103.4 kg.ha-1) obtained in vermicompost+ Nitroxin treatments. In both cuttings, the highest essential oil percentage obtained in control. The results of this study showed that vermicompost and bio fertilizers alone or in combination had no effect on essential oil but increased vegetative yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biophosphorus
  • Dry yield
  • Nitroxin
  • Essential oil percentage,
  • Sustainable agriculture
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