تاثیر محدودیت رطوبتی بر عملکرد و توزیع ماده خشک بین اندام های هوایی و ریشه تک بوته ژنوتیپ های تریتیکاله (Triticosecale×Wittmack)تحت شرایط کنترل شده

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثرات محدودیت رطوبتی برعملکرد و توزیع ماده خشک بین اندام های هوایی و ریشه ژنوتیپ های تریتیکاله (Triticosecale×Wittmack)، این آزمایش در سال1388 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل میزان رطوبت قابل دسترس خاک در دو سطح شاهد و تنش (به ترتیب آبیاری پس از تخلیه 50 و 75 درصد رطوبت قابل استفاده در منطقه ریشه) و چهار ژنوتیپ تریتیکاله (8-82-ET، 15-82-ET، 17-79-ETو92-Junillo) بودند که به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار محدودیت رطوبتی سبب کاهش معنی دار (01/0>P) عملکرد دانه به مقدار 32 درصد شد، اما اثر ژنوتیپ و اثر متقابل تیمارها تاثیر معنی داری در عملکرد نداشتند.وزن خشک کل اندام های هوایی، وزن خشک ساقه و برگ و نیز سنبله با اعمال تیمار محدودیت رطوبتی کاهش یافتند. اعمال تیمار محدودیت رطوبتی سبب کاهش معنی دار ( 01/0>P) عمق نفوذ ریشه گردید، بطوریکه تیمار محدودیت رطوبتی سبب حدود 16 درصد کاهش در عمق نفوذ ریشه شد. همچنین ژنوتیپ و برهمکنش محدودیت رطوبتیو ژنوتیپ تاثیر معنی داری (بترتیب 05/0>P و 01/0>P) بر عمق نفوذ ریشه داشتند. وزن خشک ریشه تحت تاثیر تیمارهای محدودیت رطوبتی و ژنوتیپ قرارگرفت (01/0>P) اما اثر متقابل ژنوتیپ و محدودیت رطوبتیبر این صفت معنی دار نبود. اعمال تیمار محدودیت رطوبتی سبب حدود 46 درصد کاهش در وزن خشک ریشه گردید. سطح کل ریشه نیز تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی و اثر متقابل آنها قرار گرفت. نسبت وزن خشک ریشه به وزن خشک اندام های هوایی تحت تاثیر ژنوتیپ و اثر متقابل ژنوتیپ و محدودیت رطوبتی قرار گرفت (01/0>P)، اما تیمار محدودیت رطوبتی بر این صفات اثر معنی دار آماری نداشت. در نهایت نتایج نشان داد که ژنوتیپ 8-82-ET ضمن اینکه از خصوصیات رشدی بهتری در شرایط محدودیت رطوبتی برخوردار بود، شاخص حساسیت به تنش (DSI) کمتری نیز داشت که نشان دهنده حساسیت کمتر و احتمالاً پایداری بیشترعملکرد این رقم در شرایط محدودیت رطوبتی می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of moisture limitation on yield and dry matter distribution between shoot and root of triticale (Triticosecale ×Wittmack) genotypes under controlled conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • H.R. Khazaei
  • A. Nezami
  • K. Shojaei- Noferest
چکیده [English]

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of moisture limitation on yield and dry matter distribution between shoot and root of triticale genotypes. This study was performed using a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications, in Agricultural College of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad greenhouse during 2009. Treatments were two available soil water including irrigated after 50% and 75% depletion of moisture from root zoning (as a check and moisture limitation, respectively) and four triticale genotypes (ET-82-8, ET- 82-15, Et- 79-17 and Juanillo-92). Results showed that the significant (P>0.01) decrease in grain yield due the drought stress about 32 percent, but the effects of genotypes and interaction of moisture limitation and genotypes were not significant. Total above ground dry weight, leaf plus shoot and spikelet dry weight decreased with drought moisture limitation. Moisture limitation had significant (P> 0.01) decrease in root depth about 16 percent. Also genotypes and treatment's interactions had significant effects on root depth (P>0.05). Moisture limitation and genotypes showed significant effects (P>0.01) but interactions were not significant. About 46 percent decrease on root dry weight was due from moisture limitation. Experimental treatments and their interactions had significant effects on total root area. Genotypes and interactions were significant effects (P>0.01) on root/shoot ratio, but the effect of moisture limitation was not significant. Finally, results showed that while the ET-82-8had the better growth characters, its drought susceptibility index (DSI) was lower which indicate the lower susceptibility and high yield stability of this genotype under stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought susceptibility index
  • Root growth
  • Root/Shoot ratio
  • Sustainability
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