عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants has had long a special place in the traditional agricultural systems of Iran and these systems have played an important role in creating diversity and sustainability. Management of soil nutrients using organic fertilizers is among major pillars of sustainable agriculture. Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a medicinal plant, which proper nutrition and absorption of mineral elements play an important role in increasing its quantitative and qualitative performance.
Materials and Methods
The perecent research was conducted as as factorial based on a randomized complete block design in three replications at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University in 2017. The experimental site is located at 36º 39ʹ42ʺ N latitude and 53º03´54ʺ E longitude with -11 m above sea level. Soil samples were taken from depths of 0-30 cm before land preparation. Treatment consisted biochar on two level (0 and 10 ton ha-1) and organic and biological fertilizers on five level (no fertilizer, vermicompost (10 ton ha-1), Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter and Arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus mosseae, G. intradices and G. etunicatum. Weeds and pests were controlled mechanically or by hand and no herbicides or pesticides were used. The measured properties also included the pepermint yield, essential oil and essential oil compounds. The obtained data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS (9.2) statistical software and means were compared using the least significant difference test (L.S.D) at level of 0.05.
Results and Discussion
The results of analysis of variance showed that the simple effects of biochar and organic and biological fertilizers had a significant effect on the shoot fresh weight at 1% of probability level, while the interaction effect of experimental treatments on this trait did not have significant effect. According to the results, application of 10 ton ha-1 of biochar, caused a 42.96% increase in shoot fresh weight compared to no application. In the study of the simple effect of organic and bioligical fertilizers on shoot fresh weight, the results showed that the highest and lowest ones were obtained with mycorrhiza applicaton and control (no application of organic and bioligical fertilizers) with an average of 667.95 and 418.08 g m-2, respectively. The highest shoot dry weight with an average of 89.08 g m-2 was associated with the combined use of biochar and mycorrhiza and the lowest one belonged to the control (no application of biochar and organic and biological fertilizers) with an average of 61.76 g m-2. The results also showed that the interaction of biochar and organic and biological fertilizers on essential oil compounds such as Menthone, Menthol, α-Pinene, Cineol-1,8, iso Menthone, Pulegone, Piperitone oxide, Menthyl acetate and Menthofuran was significant.
In general, the results showed that the use of biochar and biological and organic fertilizers can be effective in both the quality and quantity of peppermint essential oil, when the highest percentage of essential oil and the most peppermint essential oil compounds were obtained in treatments with application of biochar and biological and organic fertilizers. Where, the use of the bacterium Azobacter and Pseudomonas with biochar had the greatest effect on the quality of peppermint essential oil, especially in Menthol and Menton compounds. Finally, it can be cocluded that the combined use of biochar with biological fertilizers have a significant impact on the quantitative and qualitative increase of peppermint essential oil in organic or low input agricultural conditions.
The authors of this article consider it necessary for Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources to provide financial support for this research in the form of an approved research project with the project number 01-03-1399 and also for all the people who helped us in carrying out this research project. Give thanks and appreciation