تاثیر کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی، آلی و زیستی بر عملکرد و صفات بیوشیمیایی موسیر ایرانی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی. دانشکده کشاورزی. دانشگاه فردوسی. مشهد. مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرقدس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی(نیتروژن، پتاسیم، فسفر بترتیب 90، 70 و 60کیلوگرم درهکتار)، ورمی کمپوست(10 تن در‌هکتار) و کود دامی(کود گوسفندی 10 تن در‌هکتار) در تلقیح با کودهای زیستی بر صفات بیوشیمیایی و رشدی این گیاه به صورت تجزیه مرکب در قالب بلوکهای کامل تصادفی در دو سال(1396-1394) انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد اثر سال بر همه صفات ، اثر کود بر همه صفات بر به غیر از نشاسته و گلوکز و اثر متقابل سال در کود بر همه صفات به‌غیر از آنتی‌اکسیدان، نیتروژن، نشاسته و گلوکز معنی‌دار گردید، به طوریکه در سال دوم آنتی‌اکسیدان، نیتروژن، نشاسته و گلوکز(بترتیب 71/42 و 30/2 درصد، 40/0و 38/0 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن‌تر) دارای بیشترین و در سال اول(بترتیب 05/29، 44/1، 23/0و 23/0) کمترین مقدار بود. بیشترین میزان اندازه( 04/8سانتی‌متر) ، پتاسیم(88/1 و89/1درصد)، وزن پیاز(095/0و 096/0 کیلوگرم) ، پروتئین(05/15 و 72/15 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن‌تر)، بترتیب در تیمار ورمی‌کمپوست و کود شیمیایی هر دو در تلقیح با کود زیستی در سال دوم ، مقدار فنل(15/1 و 19/1 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن‌تر) بترتیب در تیمار ورمی‌کمپوست و کود شیمیایی هر دو در‌تلقیح با کود زیستی در سال دوم و فلاونوئید(1/107 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن‌تر) و فسفر(623/1 درصد) در تیمار ورمی کمپوست در تلقیح با کود زیستی در سال دوم بدست آمد، هم‌چنین بیشترین آنتی‌اکسیدان (24/36) و مقدار نیتروژن(29/2) بترتیب در تیمار ورکمپوست و کود شیمیایی هر دو در تلقیح با کود زیستی در سال دوم بود و کمترین میزان اندازه(16/3)، وزن پیاز(037/0)، مقدار فنل(168/0)، فلاونوئید(99/48)، پروتئین کل(81/6)، فسفر(753/0)، پتاسیم(811/0) در شاهد بدست‌آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of the Application of chemical, organic and biological fertilizers on yield and biochemical traits of Iranian shallot

نویسندگان [English]

  • Razieh A,mirkhani 1
  • hossein arouiee 2
  • Abdollah Ghasemi pirbalooti 3
1 Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran,
2 Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran,
3 Medicinal Herbs Research Center,Islamic Azad university, the unit of Qods city,Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Iranian shallot with the scientific name of Allium hirtifulium is an important medicinal, edible and industrial plant that grows in different regions of Iran, especially in the Central Zagros, and since for the consumption of this plant is used from its natural environment, therefore to prevent excessive harvesting from nature, it is necessary to cultivate and study various factors on quantitative and qualitative yield of this plant, such as the use of sustainable agriculture; Also, as regards the growth, development and yield of medicinal and edible plants (including Iranian shallots) are affected by genetic and environmental factors and the use of fertilizers, nutrients are effective in increasing their qualitative and quantitative yield. Therefore, creating the best substrate for cultivation, protection and harvesting is a necessity due to the use of these plants in human health. So the purposes of this study was Effect of chemical and organic fertilizer in inoculation with biofertilizer in two years on yield and biochemical traits of Iranian shallot.

Materials and Methods: In this study (in the research farm of Islamic Azad University of Shahrekord in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province) investigated the effect of chemical fertilizer application (including: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus 90, 70 and 60 kg / ha, respectively), chemical fertilizer inoculation with fertilizer Vermicompost (10 tons per hectare), Vermicompost inoculation with bio- fertilizer, manure (including sheep manure 10 tons per hectare), manure inoculation with bio-fertilizer (Including Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi including: Glomus fasiculatum, Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae and growth-promoting bacteria including: Azospirillum spp, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) on Iranian shallot biochemical and yields traits such as: size and weight of Bulb, Amount of phenol, Flavonoid Antioxidants, Starch, Glucose, Total protein, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium of this plant, as an randomized complete blocks design with three replications in two consecutive years (2016-2017 and 2017-2018) was conducted and The simple(year and fertilizer) and combined analysis(year* fertilizer) of variance were done. Data analysis was performed using SAS9.1 software and LSD test at 5% probability level was used to compare the mean of treatments.

Results and Discussion: The results of variance analysis showed that the effect of year on all traits was significant include: Size and Weight of Bulb, phenol, Flavonoids, Antioxidants, Starch, Glucose, Total Protein, Nitrogen and Phosphorus was significant at the level of 1%, the effect of fertilizer on all traits (except starch and glucose) and their interactions (year * fertilizer) on all measured traits except Antioxidant activity percent, Nitrogen, Starch and Glucose. In the second year, Antioxidant activity percent, Nitrogen, Starch and Glucose (42.71%, 2.30%, 0.40 and 0.38 respectively) had the highest amount and in the first year (29.05, 1.44, 0.23 and 0.23 mg/gr fw, respectively) had the lowest amount. According to the results the highest bulb Size (8.04 cm), Potassium (1.88 and 1.89 %), Bulb weight (0.095 and 0.096 kg), Total Protein (15.05 and 15.72 mg/gr fw), respectively, were obtained in vermicompost treatment in inoculation with bio-fertilizer in the second year and chemical fertilizer in inoculation with bio-fertilizer in the second year, Also, the highest amount of Phenol (1.15 and 1.19 mg/gr fw) respectively, in the treatment of Vermicompost in inoculation with bio-fertilizer in the second year and chemical fertilizer in inoculation with biofertilizer in the second year, Flavonoids (107.1 mg/gr fw) and phosphorus (1.623%) in Vermicompost in inoculation with bio-fertilizer in the second year were obtained. Also, the results of comparing the means showed that the highest percentages of antioxidant activity percent (36.24) and nitrogen content (2.29%) were in vermicompost in inoculation with bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer in inoculation with bio-fertilizer in the second year, respectively. The lowest bulb size (3.16 cm), bulb weight (0.037 kg), phenol content (0.168 mg/gr fw), flavonoids (48.99 mg/gr fw), total protein (6.81 mg/gr fw), phosphorus (0.753%), potassium (0.811%) were observed in the control.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, organic fertilizers can be used in inoculation with bio-fertilizer to increase the production of Iranian shallot as organic fertilizer and not having a negative effect on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of this plant instead of excessive use of chemical fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizer
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Iranian shallot
  • Organic fertilizer
  • quantitative and qualitative yield

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 03 مهر 1400
  • تاریخ دریافت: 27 اسفند 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 31 شهریور 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 03 مهر 1400