عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Conventional tillage can reduce infiltration and hydraulic conductivity by disrupting macrospore networks, increasing bulk density, porosity, water use efficiency and organic matter in soils. Conservation tillage is one of the practices of crop residue management on the soil surface. Reduced tillage is one of the conservation systems that amount remain crop residues in the soil surface. Reduced tillage have some benefits including higher soil organic matter, soil moisture maintenance by reducing evaporation, better penetration of water and controlling water and soil erosion.
Excessive using of chemical fertilizers caused serious environmental issues globally such as reduction of plant diversity, instability of economic yield, increase of pest and disease damages, intensification of soil erosion. These increasing concerns regarding the negative impacts of these systems on environment and human health suggests that more effort is needed to develop sustainable agricultural systems. Application of vermicompost and biofertilizers is regarded as one of the promising approaches to increasing crop productivity.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is mainly cultivated as a rainfed crop and water stress often affects both productivity and yield stability. The objective of this experiment was evaluate the impact of different tillage systems and application of vermicompost and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth, yield triats and economic efficiency of Cicer arietinum L.
Materials and Methods
A field experiment was carried out as split plot based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 12 treatments and three replications at the Firuzabad, Kermanshah, Iran, in 2019. The main factor was different tillage systems included conventional tillage (moldboard plowing+ disking, tillage depth 25–30 cm- CT) reduced tillage (chisel plowing- tillage depth 15 cm- RT) and no tillage (NT) and the sub factor was four different fertilization treatments (C: control, AMF: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Funneliformis mosseae), VC: vermicompost (at 1.5 t/ha), AMF+ VC: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi+ vermicompost). In AM fungi treatments, 80 g of the soil containing mycorrhizal fungi hyphae and the remains of the root and spores (1000 g spore.10-1 g soil) was added to soil in planting times. Also, vermicompost (1.5 t ha-1) was applied to the soil before planting.
Results and Discussion
The Results demonstrated that the highest grain yield (116 g/m2) and protein yield (24.2 g/m2) were achieved in reduced tillage with application of AMF+ VC. Also, reduced tillage increased the grain yield and protein yield by 19.6 and 17.1 %, respectively, when compared with CT. Different tillage systems and application of vermicompost and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly impacted the number of pod per plant, plant height, number of lateral branches per plant, number of main branches per plant and biological yield. The highest mentioned traits were obtained in reduced tillage and with integrative application of AMF+ VC. Moreover, application of AMF+ VC increased number of pod per plant, plant height and biological yield by 37.2, 35.2 and 19.7%, respectively, in comparison to control. The highest of pod total weight (155.8 g/m2), harvest index (40.5%) and grain protein content (21.2%) were obtained integrative application of AMF+ VC and the lowest this traits were reached in Control. Based on the economic values, the best treatments were RT+ C, CT+ C, AMF+ RT and AMF+ CT, respectively that had the highest net income and Marginal rate of return.
Overall, the results of this experiment demonstrated that there was significant difference between tillage systems. The highest number of pod per plant, plant height, number of lateral branches per plant, number of main branches per plant, biological yield, pod total weight, grain yield and protein yield were achieved in reduced tillage that increased by 26.4, 16.8, 27.4, 28.6, 10.9 19.6 and 17.1 %, respectively when compared with conventional tillage. Also, integrative application of AMF+ VC increased harvest index, 100 seed weight, biological yield, grain yield and grain protein content by 16.7, 21.1, 19.7, 40.1 and 21.8% respectively, when compared with control. The highest values of the seed yield and protein yield were obtained in reduced tillage with integrative application of AMF+ VC, while, based on the economic values, the maximum marginal rate of return was achieved in reduced tillage without fertilizer, conventional tillage without fertilizer, reduced tillage+ AMF and conventional tillage+ AMF, respectively.