تأثیر تاریخ کاشت بر ویژگی‌های کمّی و کیفی یونجه حلزونی (Medicago scutellata L.) تحت تأثیر عمق کشت و میزان بذر مصرفی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی محیط‌زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی و محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به سازگاری یونجه حلزونی (Medicago scutellata L.) به‌ویژه در مناطق نیمه‌خشک کشور، تأمین علوفه با کیفیت، تثبیت نیترو‍ن و جلوگیری از فرسایش خاک جایگاه مهمی در تناوب زراعی یافته است، بنابراین، بررسی عوامل مدیریت زراعی در بهبود عملکرد کمّی و کیفی آن اهمیت بسیاری دارد. هدف از این پ‍‍‍‍‍ژوهش، ارزیابی تأثیر عوامل مدیریت زراعی تاریخ کاشت (15 و 31 تیر ماه 1396)، عمق کاشت (1 و 2 سانتی­متر) و میزان بذر مصرفی (5/2، 5/7، 5/12 و 5/17 کیلوگرم در هکتار معادل 20، 50، 85 و 125 بوته در مترمربع) بر ویژگی‌های کمّی و کیفی علوفه یونجه حلزونی در شرایط اقلیمی اراک بود. آزمایش به­صورت اسپیلت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد، که تاریخ کاشت در کرت اصلی، عمق کاشت و میزان بذر در کرت­های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشترین وزن علوفه خشک و وزن خشک ساقه (به‌ترتیب 13/2884 و 71/1631 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار میزان بذر مصرفی 5/12 کیلوگرم در هکتار، در عمق کاشت یک سانتی‌متر و در تاریخ کاشت 31 تیر مشاهده شد. بر همین اساس میزان علوفه خشک حاصل از تاریخ کاشت 31 تیر 77/10 درصد و عمق کاشت یک سانتی‌متر 84/19 درصد به‌ترتیب بیشتر از تاریخ کاشت 15 تیر و عمق کاشت دو سانتی‌متر گزارش گردید. سهم وزن خشک ساقه در تاریخ کاشت 31 تیر و عمق کاشت یک سانتی‌متر به‌ترتیب 96/53 و 24/55 درصد از کل علوفه خشک بود. هم‌چنین سهم وزن خشک غلاف و برگ از علوفه خشک برای تاریخ کاشت 31 تیر به‌ترتیب 13/34 و 91/11 درصد و برای عمق کاشت یک سانتی‌متر به‌ترتیب 56/33 و 18/11 درصد گزارش گردید. با افزایش مقدار بذر مصرفی، درصد الیاف افزایش و درصد پروتئین خام رو به کاهش نهاد. با در نظر گرفتن قدرمطلق مقدار شیب (ضریب x) معادلات مربوط به این دو ویژگی مشخص گردید که تأثیرپذیری درصد الیاف از تراکم بیشتر از اثرپذیری درصد پروتئین خام از این تیمار است. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده تاریخ کاشت 31 تیر، عمق کاشت یک سانتی‌متر و میزان بذر مصرفی 5/12 کیلوگرم در هکتار، عملکرد کمّی و کیفی بهتری را نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative of Medicago scutellata Affected by Sowing Date, Sowing Depth, and Seeding Rate

نویسندگان [English]

  • saeed sharafi 1
  • Mahmoud Ramroudi 2
1 Department of Environment, and Science Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Arak University, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Given recent droughts, Medicago scutellata Var. Rabinson has taken an important position in crop rotation, especially in semi-arid regions. Therefore, agronomy management factors play an important role in improving its growth. Also, regarding its short growth period length, its quantitative and qualitative forage yield has been high, and it can be sown through dry-farming in regions with 300-500 mm of rainfall. On the other hand, given the importance of forage cultivation in agriculture and water shortage in Iran, we can try to cultivate fallow lands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different agronomic management methods on the quantitative and qualitative snail medic forage yield and to compare the relative contribution of components to increasing it under the climate of Arak.
Materials and Methods
In this study, two sowing dates (July 15 and 22, 2017) as main plot, two sowing depths (1-2 and 2-4 cm), and four seeding rates (2.5, 7.5, 12.5, and 17.5 kg ha-1 equal to 20, 50, 80, and 125 plants m-2) as subplots were investigated. The experiment conducted in split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. It is noteworthy that due to seed hardness, the average number of germinated seeds was low. The measured traits in this study included forage dry weight, stem dry weight, pod dry weight, leaf dry weight, number of pods per m2, leaf area index (LAI), dry mater digestibility (DMD), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), crude ash (CA), acidic detergent insoluble fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent soluble fiber (NDF) in the final stages of forage harvesting. Finally, using the statistical software SAS, we performed analysis of variance, comparison of means using Duncan’s multiple range test at 5% probability level and correlation analysis.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the highest dry forage weight and dry stem weight (2884.13 and 1361.71 kg.ha-1, respectively) were observed in the treatment of seeding rate of 12.5 kg ha-1, at sowing depth 1cm and on the sowing date of July 21. Accordingly, the amount of dry forage obtained from the sowing date of July 21 and the sowing depth of 1 cm was 10.77 and 19.84% more than that of the sowing date of July 5 and the sowing depth of 2 cm, respectively. The portion of dry stem weight in the sowing date of July 21 and sowing depth of 1 cm was 53.96 and 55.24% of the dry forage weight, respectively. Furthermore, the portion of the pod and dry leaf weights from the dry forage for sowing date of July 21 were respectively reported as 34.13 and 11.91%, and for sowing depth of 1cm were, respectively, 33.56 and 11.18%. As the amount of seeding rate increased, the CF increased, and the percentage of CP decreased. By taking into account the absolute value of the slope value of the equations of these two traits, it was found that the effect of density on the CF is more than the effect of this treatment of CPP. According to the obtained results, the sowing date of July 21, the sowing depth of 1 cm, and the consumed seed of 12.5 kg ha-1 showed an appropriate quantitative and qualitative yield. Also, according to the results of the correlation test, it was determined that the dry forage produced had a positive correlation with the stem dry weight (0.99**), the pod dry weight (0.99**), the leaf dry weight (0.98), the number of pods per m2 (0.43*), the CA (0.71**), DMD (0.78) and NDF. On the other hand, a negative correlation was found with LAI (-0.66**) and ADF (-0.53**).
Conclusion
Regarding the absolute value of the slope in the equations pertaining to these two properties, it was found that the susceptibility of fiber percentage to density was higher than the susceptibility of crude protein percentage in this treatment. In deeper sowing, the obtained protein percentage was 1% lower, while the lowest fiber percentage occurred in shallow sowing. Generally, we can say that this crop has a high sensitivity to high densities. Based on the results, there were the relation between regression and correlation results.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • drought
  • Fiber Percentage
  • Protein percentage
  • Summer sowing
AOAC., 2000. Association of official analytical chemists. Official methods of analysis, 17th Ed., Arlington, VA.
Bagheri, A.R., and Asadi, S., 2019. Determination of suitable areas to cultivating snail medic (Medicago scutellata L.) using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) in the province of Kermanshah. Journal of Agroecology 11(2): 467-482.
Barati, S., Bassiri, M., Vahabi, M.R., Mosaddeghi, M.R., and Tarkesh, M., 2015. Yield evaluation of Medicago sativa L. and Bromus tomentellus Boiss. in mono-cropping and intercropping. Journal of Rangeland 8(4): 318-327. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bauchan, G.R., Diwan, N., and McIntosh, M., 1993. Development and evaluation of a core germplasm collection of annual Medicago species in the United States. pp. 265-266. In: Proceedings of the XVII International Grassland Congress. New Zealand.
Bedoussac, L., and Justes, E., 2011. A comparison of commonly used indices for evaluating species interactions and intercrop efficiency: Application to durum wheat–winter pea intercrops. Field Crops Research 124(1): 25-36.
Bidadi, M.J., Kamkar, B., and Abdi, O., 2014. Suitable areas zoning of soybean cropping in Qarasoo basin by geographical information systems (GIS). Journal of Crop Protection 7(1): 175-187. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bingol, N.T., Karsli, M.A., Yilmaz, I.H., and Bolat, D., 2007. The effects of planting time and combination on the nutrient composition and digestible dry matter yield of four mixtures of vetch varieties intercropped with barley. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 31(5): 297-302.
Delpozo, A., and Ovalle, C., 2009. Productivity and persistion of yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus L.) and (Biserradella pelecinus L.) in mediterranean climate region of central Chile. Journal of Agriculture Research 69(3): 340-349.
Dorri, M., Naseri, G., and Akbarzadeh, H., 2007. Annual production of alfalfa cultivars under rainfed conditions in Gorgan. Journal of Research of Grassland and Desert 4: 455-463. (In Persian with English Summary)
Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebes, P.A., and Smith, F., 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Annual Chemistry 28: 350-356.
Esfandiari, S., Morad-Hasanloo, A., Farshadfar, M., and Safari, H., 2008. Comparison of performance and physiological characteristics of 5 drylands annual alfalfa in Kermanshah province. Research Journal of Genetics and Breeding of Pastures and Forests (16): 294-285. (In Persian with English Summary)
Eric, G., Louahlia, S., Irigoyen, J.J., Sanchez-Diaz, M., and Avice, J.C., 2010. Biomass partitioning, morphology and water status of four alfalfa genotypes submitted to progressive drought and subsequent recovery. Journal Plant Physiology 167: 114–120.
Ghalenoee, S., Koocheki, A., Poryazdi, M., and Jahan, M., 2017. Effect of different treatments on row crop and mixed of sesame and bean yield and yield components. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 15(3): 588-602. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hamidi, H., and Safarnejad, A., 2010. Effect of drought stress on alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.) In germination stage. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science 8(6): 705-70.
Otroshi, M., Zamani, A., Khodambashi, M., Ebrahimi, M., and Struik, P.C., 2009. Effect of exogenous hormones and chilling on dormancy breaking of seeds of asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida L.). Research Journal of Seed Sciences 2: 9-15.
Mirmiran, M., Azizi, K., and Amini Dehaghi, M., 2008. Effect of some of agronomy factors (Sowing depth with pod and without pod and seeding rate) on quality and quantity yield of Snail Medic. Proceedings of the 9th National Congress on Agronomy and plant breeding, September 2008, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian)
Nakhzari Moghadam, A., 2017. Effect of nitrogen and row cropping pattern on the quantity and quality of forage and pea and equipotential equity. Journal of Crops Production 10(1): 54-39. (In Persian with English Summary)
Pellicano, A., Romeo, M., Pristeri, A., Preiti, G., and Monti, M., 2015. Cereal-pea intercrops to improve sustainability in bioethanol production. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35: 827–835.
Poor Amir, F., Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M., and Ghorbani, R., 2010. Evaluation of yield and yield components in sesame and pea intercropping replacement series. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research 8(5): 757-747. (In Persian with English Summary)
Qeisarian, F., 2007. Investigation of seeding rate on Medicago scutellata yield. Research project of Agri-jahad, 80/241. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sandgoul, A., Chaichi, M.R., and Kolagry Biyabani, A., 2006. Yield comparison of five annual medics in Gorgan. Journal of Research in Grassland and Desert 13(1): 63-68. (In Persian with English Summary)
Shabani, G., Chaichi, M.R., Ardakani, M.R., and Friedel, J.K., 2015. The effect of different nutritional systems, harvest management and post-harvest period on hard-seed breakdown trend in annual medic (Medicago scutellata cv. Robinson). Agronomy Journal (Pajohesh and Sazandegi) 108: 74-80. (In Persian with English Summary)
Shabani, GH., Shams, K., Chaichi, M.R., Salimi, G., Akhtyari, S., Ardekani, M.R., Khavazi, K., Eshghizadeh, H.R., and Feridel, U., 2012. Effect of management seed production on handedness of annual medic (Medicago scutellata Var Robinson). Iranian Journal of Crop Science 42(4): 715-722. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sharafi, S., 2020. Effective methods for improving seed germination of Medicago scutellata affected by salinity and drought. Iranian Journal of Seed Research 6(1): 12-30. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sharafi, S., Ahmadi, M.R., Ghonji, N., and Nassiri, E., 2019. Effect of stratification on seed germination of annual Medic affected by salinity and drought stresses. 6th Scientific Research Congress on Development and Promotion of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Sharafi, S., Ghasemi, S., and Gholipoor, M., 2008. The effectiveness of yield and some attributes of Medicago scutellata var Rabinson from sowing date, sowing depth and seeding rate. Proceedings of the 9th National Congress on Agronomy and Plant Breeding, September 2008, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian)
Sharafi, S., Khaneh, Z., Akhlaghi, S., and Jouyban, Z., 2012. Germination, seed reserve utilization and seedling growth rate of five crop species as affected by salinity and drought stress. Life Science Journal 9(1): 94-101.
Sharafi, S., Ramroudi, M., Nassiri, M., Galavi, M., and Kamali, G.A., 2017. Assessment of moisture status and crop production in different climate of Iran. Journal of Agriculture Knowledge and Sustainable Production 7(1): 103-120. (In Persian with English Summary)
Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B., and Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharide in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74(10): 3583-3597.
Walsh, M.J., Delancy, R.H., Groose, R.W., and Krall, J.M., 2001. Performance of annual medics species (Medicago spp.) in southeastern Wyoming. Agronomy Journal 93: 1249-1256.
Wu, H., 2005. Molecular approaches in improving wheat allelopathy. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Allelopathy, Aggust 2005, Wagga Wagga, Australia.
Yousfi, N., Slama, I., Ghnaya, T., Savoure, A., and Abdelly, C., 2010. Effects of water deficit stress on growth, water relations and osmolytes accumulation in Medicago truncatula and M. laciniata populations. Crop Research and Biology 333: 205–213.