ارزیابی بیلان نیتروژن در نظام‌های زراعی تولید گندم(Triticum aestivum L.) ایران

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی


1 بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات،آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی،مشهد ، ایران


پایداری و توسعه نظام‌های زراعی به‌طور مستقیم و غیرمستقیم به حضور نیتروژن وابسته است، از سوی دیگر، نظام‌های زراعی و باغی از جمله مسیرهای اصلی تلفات نیتروژن به‌شکل‌ تصعید و شستشو می‌باشند که پیامدهای زیست‌محیطی نامطلوبی را به‌همراه خواهد داشت. این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی بیلان نیتروژن در نظام‌های زراعی گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) ایران با استفاده از مدل CENTURY اجرا شد. این مدل قادر است با تلفیق اثر متغیرهای اقلیمی، خاک و مدیریت زراعی فرآیندهای چرخه نیتروژن (N) را در سیستم‌های مختلف از جمله بوم‌نظام‌های زراعی شبیه‌سازی کند. در این ارتباط پس از تهیه بانک اطلاعاتی مورد نیاز مدل شامل داده‌های جغرافیایی، اقلیمی، مدیریت زراعی و خصوصیات خاک، روند تغییرات بیلان نیتروژن و سهم هر یک از اجزای تشکیل‌دهنده بیلان با استفاده از مدل مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج به‌دست آمده نشان داد که بیشترین نیتروژن ورودی در دامنه (5/9– 5/12 گرم در متر مربع) مربوط به بوم‌نظام‌های زراعی گندم شمال غرب، غرب و جنوب غرب و کمترین مقدار آن در دامنه (3/7– 4/9 گرم در متر مربع) مربوط به نظام‌های زراعی گندم در شرق و جنوب شرقی کشور بود. همچنین بررسی نتایج به‌دست‌آمده در رابطه با سهم نسبی اجزای نیتروژن ورودی و خروجی نشان داد که نیتروژن حاصل از مصرف کود به‌عنوان اصلی‌ترین متغیر ورودی و نیتروژن دانه به‌عنوان مؤثرترین متغیرخروجی توانستند به‌ترتیب با ضریب تبیین 973/0 و 928/0 تغییرات کل موجود در نیتروژن ورودی و خروجی را توصیف کنند. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده به‌نظر می‌رسد در رابطه با نیتروژن ورودی نقش مدیریت زراعی مانند تقسیط مصرف کود، هم‌زمانی زمان مصرف کود با نیاز گیاه و در مجموع، افزایش کارایی مصرف نیتروژن که بیشتر متکی بر مدیریت زراعی هستند، حائز اهمیت می‌باشد. امّا در خصوص خروج نیتروژن از نظام‌های زراعی گندم علاوه ‌بر مدیریت زراعی بقایا، تناوب و بهره‌گیری از ارقام اصلاح شده که از کارایی مصرف نیتروژن بالاتری برخوردار باشند، اهمیت بیشتری دارد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Nitrogen Balance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cropping Systems of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • hamid reza tavakkoli kakhki 1
  • Mehdi Nassiri Mahalati 2
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
  • Mohsen Jahan 2
  • Alireza Beheshti 3
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

The nitrogen budget or balance is often evaluated by comparing various nitrogen inputs and outputs in soil–crop systems. Research on nitrogen balance can provide more detailed information on the nitrogen cycle and its losses by integrating soil nitrogen processes with the total nitrogen budgets. There are restricted researches for evaluation of nitrogen balances in the cropping systems. It is clear that accurate measuring of each component of nitrogen budgets in relation to soil processes is difficult. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main cereal crop cultivated in Iran. According to published data the average nitrogen application rates in wheat cropping systems of Iran is 120 kg.ha-1 but, the excessive use of fertilizer nitrogen is very common in wheat fields. It is estimated that in Iran, about 2.2 million ha of wheat production areas are under irrigation. Alike, there are limited studies on nitrogen dynamics, budgets and its losses pathways in wheat production systems of Iran. Such studies are essential to understand the nitrogen behavior and balance in wheat cropping systems. This research was carried out with the aim of evaluating nitrogen balance of wheat cropping systems with different climatic conditions over the country by using CENTURY model.
Materials and Methods
We used CENTURY model (Parton et al., 1994) to evaluate nitrogen dynamics and nitrogen balance in wheat cropping systems. For this purpose 14 wheat cropping system located in diverse climates were selected. Soil data was collected from Soil and Water Research Institute and weather data from 2000 to 2014 were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization for 14 selected stations. The CENTURY model simulates the long-term dynamics of Carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N), for different Plant-Soil Systems. The model can simulate the dynamics of agricultural crop systems. The crop system of CENTURY have different plant production sub-models which are linked to a common soil organic matter sub-model .The soil organic matter sub-model simulates the flow of C, N through plant litter and the different inorganic and organic pools in the soil. CENTURY model runs in monthly time step with monthly precipitation (cm), monthly mean minimum and maximum temperature (°C), site latitude and longitude, sand, silt and clay (%), soil bulk density (g.cm-3), rooting depth (cm), C and N content of the top 20 cm of soil and management information such as planting date, first and last month of wheat growth, number and amounts of applied fertilizers, amount of irrigation water and its schedules are required. For model validation we used two statistical measures including Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (nRMSE), Willmott (1982) index of agreement (d value) and linear regression coefficients between actual and predicted values.
Results and Discussion
Results revealed that the highest nitrogen input in wheat cropping systems (9.5 - 12.5 g.m-2) was observed in Northwest, West and Southwest and the lowest (7.3 - 9.4 g.m-2) were in East and Southeast areas of the country. Also, nitrogen output plan in wheat cropping systems was similar to nitrogen input. In addition, stepwise regression analysis indicated that fertilizer application rate with partial coefficient of 97.33% and grain nitrogen with partial coefficient of 92.79%, respectively, were the most important variables in relation to nitrogen input and output in wheat cropping systems of Iran.
According to the results, it seems that in relation to nitrogen input, the role of agronomic management such as fertilizer application, coincidence of fertilizer application time with plant requirement and increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) which is mostly dependent on agricultural management are important issues. But in the case of nitrogen outputs from wheat cropping systems, in addition to agronomic managements, use of improved cultivars with higher nitrogen uptake efficiency is more important.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fertilizer
  • nitrogen input
  • Grain nitrogen
  • nitrogen output
  • simulation
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