واکنش گیاه دارویی گل‌گاوزبان ایرانی (Echium amoenmum Fisch. & C.A.Mey) به کودهای آلی و تراکم بوته

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

بسیاری از گیاهان موجود در عرصه‌های طبیعی کشور ما ایران، از جمله گیاه دارویی گل‌گاوزبان (Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey) از دیدگاه دارویی و اقتصادی از پتانسیل بالایی برخوردار هستند. به‌منظور شناخت بهتر پتانسیل‌های زراعی گیاه دارویی گاوزبان ایرانی در عرصه‌های زراعی آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سه سال زراعی 1391- 1388 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از اثر تلفیقی کود‌های آلی در چهار سطح شامل: کود گاوی (30 تن در هکتار)، کمپوست (20 تن در هکتار)، ورمی‌کمپوست (پنج تن در هکتار) و شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) و تیمار تراکم بوته در چهار سطح (چهار، شش، هشت و 10 بوته در مترمربع). با توجه به این‌که گیاه گاوزبان ایرانی در سال اول فقط دارای رشد رویشی است، نتایج به‌دست آمده از سال دوم و سوم آزمایش، حاکی از آن بود که تیمارهای مورد مطالعه اثر معنی‌داری بر تمامی صفات آزمایش همچون ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه اصلی و فرعی، تعداد گل در بوته، و عملکرد تر و خشک گل داشت. نتایج آزمایش حاکی از آن بود که با افزایش تراکم گیاه گل‌گاوزبان در مترمربع، عملکرد تر و خشک گیاه و تعداد گل در پنج گرم گل افزایش و تعداد شاخه اصلی و تعداد گل در بوته کاهش یافت. کاربرد کودهای آلی عملکرد تر و خشک گیاه، ارتفاع، تعداد شاخه فرعی و تعداد گل در بوته گیاه گل‌گاوزبان ایرانی را افزایش داد. به‌علاوه، بیشترین عملکرد تر و خشک گیاه، تعداد گل در پنج گرم گل، تعداد شاخه اصلی و تعداد گل در بوته در سال اول و بیشترین مقدار ارتفاع و تعداد شاخه فرعی در سال دوم مشاهده گردید. به‌طور کلی، به نظر می‌رسد که کاربرد کودهای آلی و استفاده از تراکم‌های مناسب جهت تولید گیاه دارویی گل‌گاوزبان ایرانی در عرصه‌های زراعی از فاکتور‌های مهم در مدیریت زراعی این گیاه محسوب می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of Echium amoenum L. as a Medicinal Plant to Organic Fertilizers and Plant Density

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parviz rezvani moghaddam
  • Javad Shabahang
  • Azam Lashgari
  • Mahsa Aghhavani-Shajari
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Many plant species in natural Iranian ecosystems such as Echium amoenum have high medicinal and economic potential use. The growing need for medicinal products of this plant along with the increasing domestic consumption, export and prevention of its extinction due to its over harvesting from natural ecosystems, necessitates its mass cultivation. E. amoenum is one of the medicinal plants that has important compounds in its flowers, which is necessary to increase the quantity and quality of its flowers. In general, environmental and management factors affecting canopy structure have a significant effect on flower production in these plants. Therefore, for the successful cultivation of any medicinal plant, including E. amoenum, providing optimal environmental conditions such as the best fertilizer combination to meet the nutritional needs of the plant is a priority. Adding organic matter from various sources to the soil is one of the most common regenerating operations to improve soil properties.
Material and Methods
In order to better understand the agronomical potential of E. amoenum as a medicinal plant at field condition, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based on a Randomised Complete Block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2009-2012. The experimental treatments were all combination of four levels of organic fertilizers (cow manure (30 t.ha-1), compost (20 t.ha-1), vermicompost (5 t.ha-1) and control) and four plant densities (4, 6, 8 and 10 plants.m-2). In April 2010, bed preparation was done by ploughing and levelling the soil and fertilizer treatments were mixed with soil. Cultivation operations were carried out in the first week of May 2010. Irrigation was performed every seven days. During the growing season of 2010, the plants produced mild stems and spent the entire season as a rosette. By autumn and winter, the aerial parts of the plant were dried and in early March 2011, with increasing ambient temperature, the leaves of the plant began to reappear from the crown. Flowering of the E. amoenum in the second year, 12 months after sowing began on April 25, 2011 and the flowering period lasted one month. The flowers were harvested in four stages every seven days. Flowering of the plant began in the third year on May 15, 2012, and the flower harvesting was carried out in five stages, every five days. At each harvest stage, fresh flower yield, dry flower yield and number of flowers per five grams of flowers were determined. After flowering, three plants were randomly marked and plant height, number of main and lateral branches and number of flowers per plant were recorded.
Results and Discussion
E. amoenum has only vegetative growth in the first year. The results of second and third years showed that studied treatments had significant effect on plant height, number of main and lateral stem branches, number of flower per plant, fresh and dry flower yield. Result showed that by increasing of plant density, fresh and dry flower yield and number of flower (at five g) were increased but number of lateral stem branches and number of flower per plant were decreased. Application of organic fertilizers increased fresh and dry flower yield, plant height, number of lateral stem branches and number of flowers per plant. Additionally, the highest fresh and dry flower yield, number of flower and number of flower per plant and number of main stem branches were obtained in the first year but the highest plant height and number of lateral branches were observed in the second year.
Conclusion
Due to the fact that E. amoenum is an unlimited growth plant, therefore, proper density adjustment is especially important during reproductive growth period. Increasing density during this period causes the plant to have fewer resources (space, water and food) to increase vegetative growth and, as a result, establish a proper balance between vegetative and reproductive growth and produce more flowering shoots and increase flower yield will result. Overall, it seems that application of organic fertilizers and optimum plant density are among more important factors for E. amoenum flower production.
Acknowledgements
Conducting this research was funded by Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of Agriculture (Grant No. 66, 25 May 2010).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Compost
  • Density
  • Medicinal plant
  • Vermicompost
  • yield
Ahmadian, A., Ghanbari, A., and Galvi, M. 2006. The effect of manures on quantitative and qualitative yield and chemical indexes of essential oil of cumin (Cuminum cyminum). Journal of Iranian Field Crops Research 4(2): 207-216. (In Persian with English Summary)
Akbarinia, A., Keramati Toroghi, M., and Hadi Tavatori, M. 2006. Effect of irrigation intervals on flower yield of Echium amoenum Mey & Fisch. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 76: 122-128. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ameri, A., and Nassiri Mahalati, M. 2009. Effects of nitrogen application and plant densities on flower yield, essential oils, and radiation use efficiency of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 81:133-144. (In Persian with English Summary)
Arancon, N.Q., Edwards, C.A., Bierman, P., Welch, C. and Metzger, J.D., 2004. Influence of
vermicompost on field strawberries. Bioresource Technology 93: 145-153.
Arancon, N.Q., Galvis P.A., and Edwards, A., 2005. Suppression of insect pest populations and damage to plants by vermicomposts. Bioresource Technology 96(10): 1137-1142.
Atiyeh, R.M., Subler, S., Edwards, C.A., Bachman, G., Metzger, J.D. and Shuster, W. 2000a. Effects of vermicomposts and compost on plant growth in horticultural container media and soil. Pedobiologia 44: 579–590.
Atiyeh, R.M., Edwards, C.A., Subler, S. and Metzger, J.D., 2000b. Earthworm-processed organic wastes as components of horticultural potting media for growing marigold and vegetable seedlings. Compost Science and Utilization 8(3): 215-223.
Atiyeh, R.M., Arancon, N., Edwards, C.A. and Metzger, J.D. 2002. Incorporation of earthworm processed organic wastes into greenhouse container media for production of marigolds. Bioresource Technology 81(2): 103-108.
Azeez, J.O., Van Averbeke, W. and Okorogbona, A.O.M. 2010. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures. Bioresource Technology 101: 2499–2505.
Azizi, M., Rezvanee, F., Hassanzadeh Khayat, M., Lackzian, A., and Neamati, H. 2008. The effect of different levels of vermicompost and irrigation on morphological properties and essential oil content of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) C.V. Goral. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 24(1):82-93. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bachman, G.R. and Metzger, J.D. 2008. Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost, Bioresource Technology 99: 3155–3161.
Darzi1, M.T., Ghalavand, A. and Rejali, F. 2009. The effects of biofertilizers application on N,P,K assimilation and seed yield in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 25(1): 1-19. (In Persian with English Summary)
Delate, K. 2000. Heenah mahyah student from herb trail. Leopold center for sustainable agriculture. Annual Reports, Jowa State University. Ames, IA.
Ebhin Masto, R., Chhonkar, P.K., Singh, D. and Patra, A.K. 2006. Changes in soil biological and biochemical characteristics in a long-term field trial on a sub-tropical inceptisoil. Soil biology and Biochemistry 38: 1577-1582.
Ghost, B.C., and Bhat, R. 1998. Environmental hazards of nitrogen loading in wetland rice fields. Environmental Pollution 102: 123–126.
Hussien, M. S., El-Sherbeny, S. E., and Khalil, M. Y. 2006. Growth character and chemical constituents of Dracocephalum moldavica L. plants in relation to compost fertilizer and planting distance. Scientia Horticulture 108: 322-331.
Kalra, A. 2003. Organic cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants. A hope for sustainability and quality enhancement. Journal of Organic Production of Medicinal, Aromatic and Dye-Yielding Plants (MADPs). FAO.
Karimi Zarchi, M., and Kalbasi, M. 1999. Effect of aeration and mixing on composting process and quality of compost, which is made of municipal wastes. 6th Congress of Soil Science of Iran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. p. 7. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khandan, A., Astarayi, A., Naddiri Mahallati, M., and Fotovwat, A. 2006. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield and yield components of Plantago ovata Forsk. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 3: 244-253. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khandan, A. 2004. Effects of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on physio-chemical characteristics of soil and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). MS.c Thesis in soil department of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Tabrizi, L. and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2004. Organic cultivation of Plantago ovate and Plantago psyllium in response to water stress. Journal of Iranian Field Crop Research 2(1): 67-78. ( In Persian with English Summary)
Kumar, T. S., Swaminathan, V. and Kumar, S. 2009. Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil constituents in Raton crop of davana (Artemisia pallens). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8 (2): 86-95.
Liuc, J. and Pank, B., 2005. Effect of vermicompost and fertility levels on growth and oil yield of Roman chamomile: Scientia Pharmaceutica 46: 63-69.
Mahfouz, S.A. and Sharaf-Eldin, M.A. 2007. Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Agrophysics 21: 361-366.
Mallanagouda, B. 1995. Effects of N. P.K and FYM on growth parameters of onion, garlic and coriander. Journal of Medic and Aromatic Plant Science 4: 916-918.
Martin, R.J. and Deo, B. 2000. Effect of plant population on Calendula officinalis flower production. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticulture of Science 28 (1): 37-44.
Mcginnis, M., Cooke, A., Bilderback, T. and Lorscheider, M., 2003. Organic Fertilizers for basil transplant production. Acta Horticulturea 491: 213-218.
Moazen, S., Daneshian, J., and Akbarinia, A. 2005. Investigation of response of Dracocephalum moldavica L., Hypericum perforatum, Phoenicolum vulgar and Echium amoenum Mey & Fisch. Abstracts of first congress of effect of environmental stresses on crops. Azad University of Takestan. (In Persian with English Summary)
Moradi, R. Rezvani Moghaddam, P. Nasiri Mahallati, M. and Lakzian, A. 2009. The effect of application of organic and biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel). Journal of Iranian Field Crop Research 7(2): 625-635. ( In Persian with English Summary)
Muscolo, A., Bovalo, F., Gionfriddo, F. and Nardi, F., 1999. Earthworm humic matter produces auxin-like effects on Daucus carota cell growth and nitrate metabolism. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31:1303-1311.
Najafpour Navaei, M. 2002. Effects of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizer on seed yield of Echium amoenum Mey& Fisch. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 13: 41-50. (In Persian with English Summary)
Omidbaigi, R. Fattahi, F. Fattahi, F. and Karimzadeh, Gh. 2010. Harvest time affect on the herb yield and essential oil content of lemon thyme (Thymus × citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 26(3): 317-325. (In Persian with English Summary)
Parmar, D.K. and Sharma T.R. 1998. Integrated nutrient supply system for DPPG8, vegetable pea (Pisum sativum var aravense) in dry temperature zone of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal Agriculture Science 68: 247-253.
Rahmani, N., Jalali Yekta, A., Taherkhani, T. and Daneshian, J. 2009, Effect of plant density and nitrogen on yield of essential oil of Calendula officinalis L.. Ecophisiology of Crop Field Journal 2(4): 347-354.
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Mohammad Abadi, A.A. and Moradi, R. 2010. Effect of chemical and organic fertilizers on yield and components yield of Sesamum indicum L. in different plant density. Journal of Agroecology 2(2): 256-265. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sayyah, M., Boostani, H., Pakseresht, S. and Malaieri, A. 2009. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Echium amoenum in treatment of obsessive-compulsive. Progressin Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 33: 1513–1516.
Seghat Al-Eslami, M.J. and Mousavi, Gh.I. 2007, Effect of sowing date and plant density on grain and flower yield of pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Journal of Iranian Field Crop Research 6(2): 263-269. (In Persian with English Summary)
Shaalan, M.N. 2005. Effect of compost and different sources of biofertilizers, on borage plants (Borago officinalis). Egypt Journal of Agriculture Research 83(1): 271.
Tabrizi, L., Koocheki, A., and Ghorbani, R. 2009. Effect of biofertilizers on agronomic and quality criteria of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). Journal of Iranian Field Crops Research 6(1): 126-136. (In Persian with English Summary)
Tahami Zarandi, M.K., Rezvani Moghaddam, P. and Jahan, M. 2010. Comparison of the effects of organic and chemical fertilizer on the percentage and yield of essential oil of ocmimum (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agroecology 2(1): 63-74. (In Persian with English Summary)
Yazdani Biuki, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Khazaie, H. R. and Astaraei, A. R. 2010. Qualitative and qualitative characteristics of Silybum marianum in response to organic, biological and chemical fertilizers. Journal of Agroecology 2(4): 548-555. (In Persian with English Summary)
Zhukova, L. A., Voskresneskaya, O. L. and Grosheva, N. P., 1996. Morphological and physiological characteristics of ontogenesis in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) plants grown at different densities. Russian Journal of Ecology 27: 100-106.