ارزیابی بلندمدت تغییرات فشرده‌سازی با استفاده از شاخص تراکم زراعی در بوم‌نظام‌های کشاورزی ایران (1341 تا 1390)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 سازمان تحقیقات ،آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران

چکیده

فشرده‌سازی به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین عامل در افزایش تولیدات کشاورزی شناخته شده است. یکی از شاخص‌های کاربردی در تعیین میزان فشرده‌سازی استفاده از شاخص تراکم زراعی است. این تحقیق با استفاده از داده‌های سطح زیر کشت و اقلیمی مربوط به دوره 50 ساله 1341تا 1390 به بررسی روند تغییرات فشرده‌سازی در محصولات مهم زراعی (شامل گندم (Triticum aestivum L.)، جو (Hordeum vulgare L.)، برنج (Oryza sativa L)، ذرت (Zea mays L.( سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.(، گوجه‌فرنگی (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)، شبدر (Trifolium sp.)، محصولات جالیزی، حبوبات، سبزیجات، چغندر قند (Beta vulgaris L.) و پنبه (Gossypium arboreum L.) با جمع‌آوری داده‌های سطح زیر کشت و تولید و داده بارندگی در همه استان‌های کشور پرداخته است. تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات نشان داد که روند تغییرات سطح زیر کشت رو به کاهش بود. بر اساس میانگین میزان تراکم زراعی کل کشور در سال 1350، 1382 و 1390 به‌ترتیب 26/9، 84/8 و 80/8 ماه و میانگین سه سال94/8 ماه بود. کمترین میزان شاخص تراکم زراعی در سال 1350 متعلق به استان‌های ساحلی جنوب (هرمزگان و بوشهر) و مازندران به‌ترتیب با میانگین 98/5 و 33/6 ماه و در سال 1382 به استان‌های گیلان و مازندران به‌ترتیب با مدت پوشش 72/5 و 62/6 ماه بود و در سال 1390 نیز کمترین میزان این شاخص به گیلان و استان‌های ساحلی جنوب به‌ترتیب با مدت پوشش 63/5 و 3/6 ماه تعلق داشت. با توجه به اینکه در اکثر مناطق کشور بیش از نیمی از سطح زیر کشت به گندم اختصاص دارد و از طرفی مدت زمانی که گندم در روی زمین باقی می‌ماند جزء طولانی‌ترین‌ها در بین محصولات زراعی می‌باشد، لذا سطح زیر کشت گندم مهم‌ترین سهم را در تعیین شاخص تراکم زراعی (یا پوشش زراعی) ایفا می‌کند، از طرفی در مناطق شمال غربی به‌دلیل شرایط اقلیمی و سردتر بودن، مدت زمانی که غلات و به‌ویژه گندم در روی زمین قرار دارند نیز بیشتر می‌باشد و دلیل اصلی بالاتر بودن شاخص تراکم زراعی در این مناطق، مدت زمان حضور گندم در سطح زمین می‌باشد و در همه سال‌ها، خراسان جزء مناطقی با بالاترین میزان تراکم زراعی بوده است، به‌طوری‌که در هیچ دوره این مقدار کمتر از 11 نبوده که نشان‌دهنده ثبات در تولید محصولات زراعی در این استان است. بررسی تراکم زراعی در بوم‌زیست‌های زراعی کشور نشان داد که برخلاف انتظار، در مناطق دارای بارندگی بیشتر به‌دلیل کشت محصولاتی مانند برنج، مدت پوشش زمین به‌نسبت کمتر بوده و مدت زمانی طولانی در سال زمین بدون کشت بوده و لذا تغییر الگوی کاشت در این مناطق ضروری می‌باشد و می‌توان با وارد کردن گیاهانی مانند بقولات و یا حبوبات، از شرایط اقلیمی این مناطق برای افزایش تولید و تأمین امنیت غذایی استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Long Term Evaluation of Crops Agronomic Density using Crop Density index in Iran Crops Production

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Reza kiani 1
  • alireza Koocheki 2
  • mehdi nassiri mahallati 2
  • Ahmad Zareh Feizabadi 3
1 Agricultural Research,Education and Extension Organization
2 Ferdowsi university of Mashhad
3 Agricultural Research,Education and Extension Organization
چکیده [English]

Introduction
In the foreseeable future, plants are still the most important source of human food supply, and given the rapid rise in demand for food in developing countries, the demand for food will increase sharply over the next 20 years. Compression is the most important factor in increasing agricultural production. One of the useful indicators in determining the compression rate is the use of agronomic index. In Nepal, an applied definition has been used to compress agriculture, which includes increasing the number of crops per unit area in a crop season, along with the trend of chemical changes to improve plant performance. One of the important indicators used by many researchers is made by Boserup (1966). In this definition, agricultural compression  means increasing the cultivation of crops in a given period in an agricultural system., The idea of increasing the frequency of planting important crops originated in agriculture prior to industrialization and was the only way to increase crop production in one year. This concept later became more comprehensive by other researchers by adding the differences in the length of sowing and planting of crops. In a number of studies, the frequency of products indicating the amount of land use has been used as a compression index.
Methods
In order to study the trend of changes in crop density, agronomy and stability in agricultural production, statistical data of 15 agricultural variables including crop area and rainfall in different provinces of the country for the period of 50 years from 1961 to 2011 have been obtained from the Statistical Yearbook, databases The Ministry of Agriculture, the Center for Statistics of Iran and the FAO Database.
Agronomic index was used to study the land use status of arable land and an aspect of compression including land cover with one-year cultivars.
Result and Discussion
Based on the average, total agricultural density in 1971, 2004 and 2011were 9.26, 8.48 and 8.80, respectively, and the mean of three years was 8.94 months. The lowest index of agricultural density index in 1350 belonged to southern coastal provinces (Hormozgan and Bushehr) and Mazandaran with average of 6.98 and 7.33 months, respectively. In 2004 Guilan and Mazandaran provinces had the least index of 4 and 62.5 months, and in 2011 the lowest rate of this indicator was in Gilan and southern coastal provinces, with a period of coverage of 63.6 and 5.3 months, respectively. Considering that in most regions of the country more than half of the cultivated area is allocated to wheat, and also wheat remains on the ground  longer than the other crops, therefore, wheat cultivation owns the most important share  in the determination of the index of agronomic agglomeration (or crop cover). On the other hand, in the northwestern regions due to climatic conditions and colder periods of time, cereals especially wheat remail on the ground longer ,so the main reason for the higher index of agronomy in these areas is that wheat is present at the surface of earth. The study of agronomy in the country's arable crops showed that, contrary to expectation, in areas with higher rainfall the duration of land cover is less and soil remains without cultivation a long time in the year, due to the cultivation of crops such as rice. Therefore, changing the pattern of planting is essential in these areas .
Conclusion
The results of this study showed that due to the dominance of cereal cultivation in cropping pattern, crop density was affected by the cropping area of ​​these plants. Food security is one of the basic needs and increasing the production per unit area isone of the important ways to achieve it.  So, changing the pattern or planting system is necessary in areas where compression is low.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • intensification
  • Agriculture
  • Iran
  • Stability
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