بررسی شاخص‌های رقابتی و عملکرد در کشت مخلوط تأخیری جو Hordeum vulgare L.)) با نخود Cicer arietinum L.)) در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی انتهای فصل

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر تنش کم‌آبی انتهای فصل بر عملکرد و برخی شاخص­های رقابتی در کشت مخلوط تأخیری جو با نخود آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی داراب، دانشگاه شیراز در سال زراعی 97-1396 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تنش کم‌آبی در دو سطح (آبیاری مطلوب و قطع آبیاری در مرحله شیری شدن دانه جو) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و ترکیب­های مختلف کشت مخلوط تأخیری با هشت سطح شامل: کشت خالص جو در آذر و دی­ماه، کشت­ خالص نخود در آذرماه و دی­ماه، کشت مخلوط جو + نخود در آذرماه ، کشت مخلوط جو + نخود در دی­ماه، کشت مخلوط جو در آذرماه + نخود در دی­ماه و کشت مخلوط جو در دی­ماه + نخود در آذرماه به‌روش سری جایگزینی با نسبت 1 به 1 به‌صورت ردیفی به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش کم‌آبی انتهای فصل بر شاخص­های نسبت برابری زمین کل، نسبت رقابتی و عملکرد نخود اثر معنی­داری گذاشت. بیش‌ترین و کم‌ترین درصد کاهش عملکرد دانه نخود با 80 و 1/16 درصد در تک­کشتی­های نخود دی و نخود آذرماه به­دست آمد. تنش کم‌آبی باعث افزایش 58 و 25 درصدی نسبت برابری زمین نخود و کل نسبت به شرایط آبیاری مطلوب گردید. در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تنش آبی گیاه جو جزء غالب و نخود جزء مغلوب بودند. هم‌چنین در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی کشت مخلوط جو در آذر + نخود در دی­ماه با نسبت رقابتی 68/0 کم‌ترین میزان نسبت رقابتی را نسبت به سایر تیمارهای نخود داشت به‌گونه­ای که نخود دی­ماه می­تواند برای کشت به­عنوان گیاه دوم همراه جو آذرماه مناسب باشد. در این آزمایش غالبیت گیاه جو در تمامی الگوهای کشت مخلوط بیش‌تر از غالبیت نخود بود. شاخص بهره­وری سیستم در تمامی تیمارهای کشت مخلوط مثبت بود. به‌طور کلی، کشت مخلوط جو درآذر + نخود در دی­ماه در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی به­دلیل داشتن بالاترین نسبت برابری زمین نخود و کل و هم‌چنین داشتن پایین­ترین نسبت رقابتی نسبت به سایر تیمارها می­تواند برای کشت در منطقه داراب توصیه گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Seed Yield and Competitive Indices in Relay Intercropping of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Late Season Low Water Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Negin Mohavieh Asadi
  • Ehsan bizhan zadeh
  • Ali Behpouri
Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Intercropping is an old cropping practice, possibly as old as the settled agriculture, and is widespread especially in low-input cropping systems. One of the most popular intercropping practices is the cultivation of certain annual legumes with cereals. Intercropping is the production of greater yield on a given piece of land by making more efficient use of the available growth resources using a mixture of crops of different rooting ability, canopy structure, height, and nutrient requirements based on the complementary utilization of growth resources by the component crops. Several indices such as Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), Competitive Ratio (CR) and Aggressivity (A) have been developed to describe the competition and the economic advantage in intercropping. The objective of this study was the evaluation of seed yield and competitive indices in relay intercropping barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under late-season water stress.  
Material and Methods
An experiment was carried out as a split-plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replicates at the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Darab, Shiraz University during 2017-2018 growing season. The cropping systems included two factors. The main factor was two irrigation regimes including cutting off irrigation at the beginning of the milk development stage and normal irrigation. The subfactor was 8 different combinations of relay intercropping consisted of monoculture of Zehak six-rowed barley cultivar (b), monoculture of Darab chickpea cultivar (c) sole cropping of barley on December and January (b1, b2), sole cropping of chickpea on December and January (c1, c2), and different combinations of relay intercropping consisted of intercropping of barley+ chickpea on December (b1c1), intercropping of barley + chickpea on January (b2c2), intercropping of barley on December +chickpea on January  (b1c2), intercropping of barley on January+chickpea on December (b2c1) and cultivation of barley on January+ chickpea on January (b2c2) with a ratio of 1:1. Eventually, seed yield and competitive indices were measured. Competitive indices were including land equivalent ratio (LER), competitive ratio (CR), aggressivity (A) and system productivity index (SPI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using SAS v. 9.4 software and the means compared by LSD test at 5% probability level.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the late-season low water stress had a significant effect on all studied traits and the highest and lowest percentage reduction of grain yield was obtained in chickpea mono-cropping in December (80%) and January (16.1%), respectively. Low water stress increased by 58% and 25% LER of chickpea and total compared to the normal irrigation conditions, respectively. Under low water stress and normal irrigation conditions, barley was dominant species and at low water stress condition competitive power of legumes increased. Also, under low water stress conditions, barley on December+chickpea in January treatment showed the highest CR (0.68) compared to other treatments. In this experiment aggressivity of barley plant was higher in all cropping patterns than chickpea. Finally, SPI was positive in all intercropping treatments.
Conclusion
The result of the present study showed that the highest LER and SPI were obtained in intercropping of barley in December + chickpea in January under low water stress conditions. It can be concluded that intercropping treatments were superior to mono-cropping treatments especially in intercropping of barley in December+ chickpea in January when plants exposed to water stress. Overall, relay intercropping of chickpea in January with barley in December is the best and useful option in grain yield improvement and can be applied by farmers in semi-arid areas such as south regions of Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competitive ratio
  • grain yield
  • Land equivalent ratio
  • productivity Index
Agegnehu, G., Ghizaw, A., and Sinebo, W. 2006. Yield performance and land use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Ethiopian highlands. Agronomy Journal 25: 202-207.
Alizadeh, Y., Koocheki A., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2010. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency of intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and herb sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Agroecology 2(1): 94-104. (In Persian with English Summary)
Amani Machiani M., Javanmard A., Morshedloo, M.R., and Maggi, F. 2018. Evaluation of yield, essential oil content and compositions of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) intercropped with faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Journal of Cleaner Production 171: 529-537.
Caruthers, K., Pithviraj, B., Cloutier, D., Martin, R.C., and Smith, D.L. 2000. Intercropping corn with soybean, lupin and forages: yield component response. European Journal of Agronomy 12: 103-115.
Chapagain, T., and Riseman, A. 2014. Barley-pea intercropping: Effects on land productivity, carbon and nitrogen transformations. Field Crops Research 166: 18-25.
Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A., Amon, T., and Kaul, H.P. 2011. Competition and yield in intercrops maize and sunflower for biogas. Industrial Crops and Products 34: 1203-1211.
Daneshmand, AR., Shirani Rad, A.H., and Ardakani, M.R. 2006. Evaluation of water deficit stress on tolerance of spring rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) genotypes. Journal of Agronomy Research 1: 48-60.
Dhima, K.V., Lithourgidis, A.S., Vasilakoglou, I.B and Dordas, C.A. 2007. Competition indices of common vetch and cereal intercrops in two seeding ratio. Field Crops Research 100: 249-256.
Eslami Khalili, F., H. Pirdashti, and Motaghian, A., 2011. Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yield in different density and mixture intercropping via competition indices. Journal of Agroecology 3(1):94-105 (In Persian with English Summary)
Ghanbari, A., Ghadiri, H., Ghaffari Moghadam, M., and Safari, M. 2010. Evaluation of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and effect on weeds control. Iranian Journal of Crop Science 41(1): 43-55. (In Persian with English Summary)
Grimes, D.W., Yamada, H., and Hughes, S.W. 1987. Climate-normalized cotton leaf water potentials for irrigation cheduling. Agriculture and Water Management 12: 293-304.
Hamzei, J., Seyedi, M., Ahmadvand, G., and Abutalebian, M.A. 2012. The effect of additive intercropping on weed suppression, yield and yield component of chickpea and barley. Journal of Crop Production and Processing 2(3): 43-56 (In Persian with English Summary)
Ibrahim, M., Ayub, M., Maqbool, M.M., Nadeem, S.M., Haq, T., Hussain, S., Ali, A., and Lauriault, L.M. 2014. Forage yield components of irrigated maize-legume mixtures at varied seed ratios. Field Crops Research 169:140-144.
Koocheki, A., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Borumand Rezazadeh, Z., Jahani, M., and Jafari, L. 2014. Yield responses of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) to intercropping with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and bean (Phaseoluse vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 12(1): 1-8. (In Persian with English Summary)
Lamei Harvani, J. 2013. Assessment of dry forage and crude protein yields, competition and advantage indices in mixed cropping of annual forage legume crops with barley in rainfed conditions of Zanjan province. Iranian Journal of Seed and Plant Production 29(2): 169-183. (In Persian with English Summary)
Lithourgidis, A.S., Vlachostergios, D.N., Dordas, C.A., and Damalas, C.A. 2011. Dry matter yield, nitrogen content, and competition in pea-cereal intercropping systems. European Journal of Agronomy 34: 287-294.
Mabudi Bilesuar, H., and Zehtab Salmasi, S. 2017. Evaluation of yield and advantages of corn (Zea mays L.) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) intercropping. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 27(1): 1-11.
Mashhadi, T., Nakhzari, A., and Sabouri, H. 2015. Investigation of competition indices in intercropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under nitrogen consumption. Journal of Agroecology 7: 344-355. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mead, R., and Willey, R.W. 1980. The concept of a land equivalent ratio and advantages in yields for intercropping. Experimental Agriculture 16: 217-228.
Mojtabaie Zamani, M., and Norouzi, SH. 2017. Evaluation of different intercropping patterns of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) through competitive and Economic indices. Journal of Crop Production and Processing 7(3): 145-158. (In Persian with English summary)
Mosapour, H., Ghanbari, A., Sirousmehr, A.R., and Asgharipour, M.R. 2015. Effect of sowing time on seed yield, advantage and competitive indices in ajwain (Carum copticum L.) and isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) intercropping. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 17(2): 139-152. (In Persian with English Summary)
Motaghian, A., Pirdashti, H., Akbarpour, V., Sarajpour, G., Yahgoubi Khanghahi, M., and Shariatnejad, S. 2013. Evaluation of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) yield in different intercropping mixturesvia competition indices. Journal of Agroecology 5(3): 243-254. (In Persian with English Summary)
Nakhzari Moghaddam, A., Dehghanpour Inchehbron, O., and Rahemi Karizaki, A. 2017. The effects of nitrogen levels and intercropping pattern on forage yield and competition indices of barley and pea. Journal of Plant Production Research 9(1): 199-214. (In Persian with English Summary)
Niksirat, H., Biganzadeh, E., and Naderi, R. 2018. Effect of Cutting off Irrigation on Yield and Competition and Economic Indices of Intercropping Barley (Hordeum spp.) with Legumes. Journal of Agroecology 10(2): 444-458. (In Persian with English Summary)
Piroozi, B., Hosseini, S.M.B., Mazaheri, D., and Heidari, H. 2012. Evalution of sowing time and intercropping on vegetative and reproductive traits of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and biological yield of forage maize (Zea mays). Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi) 104: 62-68. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rezaei-Chianeh, E., Tajbakhsh, M., Valizadegan, O., and Banaei-Aai, F. 2014. Evaluation of different intercropping patterns of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and lentil (Lens culinars L.) in double crop. Journal of Agroecology 5(4): 462-472. (In Persian with English Summary)
Stolz, E., and Nadeau, E. 2014. Effect of intercropping on yield, weed incidence, forage quality and soil residual N inorganically grown forage maize (Zea mays L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Field Crops Research 169: 21-29
Tosti G, Benincasa, P., and Giuiducci, M. 2010. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy vetch- Barley intercrops. Italian Journal of Agronomy Rivista di Agronomia 3: 239-247.
Vandermeer, J. 1989. The Ecology of Intercropping. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK pp 67.
Yang F, Huang S., Gao, R., Liu, W., Yong, T., Wang, X., Wu, X., and Yang, W. 2014. Growth of soybean seedling in relay strip intercropping systems in relation to light quantity and red: far- red ratio. Field Crops Research 155: 245-253.
Zadokes, J.C., Chang, T.T., and Konzak, C.F. 1974. A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14: 415-421.
Zhang, L., Van der werf, W., Zhang, S., Li, B., and Spiertz, J.H.J. 2007. Growth, yield and quality of wheat & cotton in relay strip intercropping system. Field Crops Research 103: 178-188.