ارزیابی اثر مدیریت کودی بر مبنای مقادیر کمپوست‌ بر عملکرد و جذب نیتروژن در تولید گوجه‌فرنگی (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه کاسل آلمان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر انواع کمپوست در نظام تولید گوجه‌فرنگی (Solanum lycopersicum L.) در شرایط اکولوژیک، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و تیمار‌های کود گاوی، کمپوست شهری، بقایای کمپوست قارچ و ورمی­کمپوست در سه مقدار کم (سه تن در هکتار برای ورمی­کمپوست و 10 تن در هکتار برای دیگر کودها)، متوسط (شش تن در هکتار برای ورمی­کمپوست و 20 تن در هکتار برای دیگر کودها) و زیاد (نه تن در هکتار برای ورمی­کمپوست و 30 تن در هکتار برای دیگر کودها) و دو روش اجرای ردیفی در پشت بوته و نیز پخش در سطح زمین در بخش ارگانیک مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 94-1393 به اجرا در آمد. سه عامل عملکرد، ماده خشک گیاه و نیز میزان نیتروژن جذب شده کل مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. اختلاف بین تیمار‌ها در سطح نوع کود مصرفی در هر سه عامل عملکرد، ماده خشک و نیتروژن جذب شده معنی‌دار بود؛ امّا در مورد میزان مصرف کود و روش مصرف کود فقط در عملکرد تغییرات معنی‌داری بین تیمار‌ها مشاهده گردید. تیمار‌های کود گاوی بیش‌ترین عملکرد (8/102 تن در هکتار) و نیز تولید ماده خشک و جذب نیتروژن را نشان دادند. نتایج نشان دادند که بین انواع کمپوست در عملکرد و مقدار جذب نیتروژن تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود ندارد، امّا کمپوست شهری ماده خشک کم‌تری را نسبت به دیگر کمپوست‌ها ایجاد کرد. بر این اساس، پیشنهاد می­شود در راستای دستیابی به اصول کشاورزی اکولوژیک مصرف مقادیر مختلف انواع کمپوست را به‌منظور بهبود عملکرد گوجه‌فرنگی مدنظر قرار داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the Effect of Fertilizer Management Based on Compost Levels on Yield and N Uptake on Organic Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Production

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghorbanali Asadi 1
  • Ehsan Ebrahimi 2
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Universität Kassel
چکیده [English]

Introduction
One of the more challenging aspects of sustainable farming is the development of an appropriate fertility management. Soil management in  sustainable  agriculture  improves  the  soil  fertility  supplying  with  composted  materials. In a sustainable agriculture, compost is used to maintain and improve fertility.
Compost is a soil amendment produced through the metabolism of an organic substrate by aerobic microorganisms under controlled conditions. Composting is an ancient agricultural technology going back to biblical times that still has an important application in modern agriculture. Compost supply a primary source of nutrients for the crops, as well as prepare a supplementary nitrogen source that compliments fertilizer nitrogen to provide a more sustainable farming system. Additionally, it is rich in the microorganisms that recycle organic matter.  Compost also boosts the plant and soil enhancing activity of soil life.
Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) belongs to the family Solanaceae and is a popular grown vegetable which ranks third of worldwide vegetable production. It is used as an ingredient in many recipes, sauces, salads and drinks. Tomato fruit has much nutritional value comparatively low prices than other vegetables. It was also reported that tomato is an important source of nutrient and antioxidant such as lycopene and vitamin C.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate different compost types and rates on growth, yield and total uptake nitrogen of tomato.
Material and methods
An experiment was performed as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2014-2015. Considered factors were cow manure, household compost, spent mushroom compost and vermicompost with three levels of low (3 t.ha-1 for vermicompost and 10 t.ha-1 for other manures), medium (6 t.ha-1 for vermicompost and 20 t.ha-1 for other manures), and high (9 t.ha-1 for vermicompost and 30 t.ha-1 for other manures), and two application methods (row and broad). Uptake N was measured by using Kjeldahl.
The treatments were run as an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if significant differences existed among treatments means. Multiple comparison tests were conducted for significant effects using the LSD test.
Results and discussion
The results showed that there were substantial differences among treatments for yield, dry matter and total nitrogen uptake between various manures. Difference between treatments for total yield production was significant for the level of manure application and the method of manure application. In common with other field experiments, we observed significant improve in yield where composts have been applied to field crops. This experiment showed there is no significant different for total yield production and total nitrogen uptake between different composts but, household compost produced less dry matter. The highest and the lowest final yield were related to cow manure and vermicompost with 102.82 and 89.08 t.ha-1, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum and the minimum uptake N were observed in cow manure and Household compost with 123.2 and 82.04 kg N ha-1, respectively.
Conclusion
Compost types and rates had remarkable efficacy on growth, yield and total uptake nitrogen of tomato. The results showed  the  marketable  yields  for  tomato  crops  which clearly display  the  beneficial effect of compost types and levels usage. By increasing soil organic matter, compost can enhance the soil’s capacity to hold water and nutrients, and such changes can dramatically affect the yield of non-irrigated crops. Compost  in  sustainable  tomato  crop  production  in  specific  and  in  general  plays an important  role in agro-ecosystem  management. As a matter of fact, Compost can be used instead of other chemical fertilizers to improve the tomato crop production.
Acknowledgement
This research 38324 was funded by Vice Chancellor for Research of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, which is hereby acknowledged.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Household compost
  • Organic farming
  • Spent mushroom compost
  • Tomato
  • Vermicompost
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