اثر زمان رویش در خزانه و تراکم سوروف‌آبی (Echinochloa oryzoides) بر قابلیت رقابت با برنج (1. مطالعات طی فصل رشد: رشد و نمو)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور-رشت

چکیده

بررسی اثرات رقابتی علف‌هرز سوروف‌آبی به‌عنوان یک گونه‌ رقیب جدید در شالیزارهای استان گیلان حائز اهمیت بسیاری است. نتیجه رقابت علف‌هرز-گیاه‌زراعی تحت تأثیر تراکم و نسبت ‌گونه‌ای قرار می‌گیرد؛ اگرچه زمان نسبی رویش دانه‌رست علف‌های‌هرز می‌تواند تأثیر زیادی بر آن داشته باشد. طی دو سال مطالعه مزرعه‌ای، اثر سن گیاهچه سوروف‌آبی هنگام نشاءکاری (10، 20 و 30 روز) و نسبت تراکم سوروف‌آبی: برنج در هرکپه (4:0، 3:1، 2:2، 1:3 و 0:4 علف‌هرز: برنج) به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. خصوصیات رشد برنج و علف‌هرز در شرایط رقابت تمام‌فصل با شش و پنج مرحله نمونه‌برداری‌ تخریبی به‌ترتیب در سال اول و دوم آزمایش مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. در گیاه‌ زراعی برنج، افزایش تعداد گیاهچه در نسبت‌های مختلف کاشت سبب افزایش تعداد پنجه، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن خشک برگ و کل ماده خشک تولیدی شد؛ امّا این نسبت بر ارتفاع نهایی بوته‌ها تأثیری نداشت. در علف‌هرز نیز تعداد پنجه و کل ماده خشک تولیدی تحت ‌تأثیر نسبت کاشت قرار گرفته و با افزایش تعداد علف‌هرز در نسبت کاشت، افزایش یافت؛ اگرچه نسبت‌کاشت تأثیر چندانی بر ارتفاع نهایی گیاهان، حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ و وزن خشک برگ علف‌هرز نداشت و با پیشرفت فصل رشد تفاوت تیمارها از بین رفت. در نسبت کاشت 3:1 علف‌هرز: برنج تعداد پنجه‌ها در اکثر مراحل نمونه‌برداری در دو گونه مشابه بود؛ امّا در سایر مخلوط‌ها، در علف‌هرز بیش‌تر از برنج بود. حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، حداکثر وزن خشک برگ و کل ماده خشک تولیدی در کلیه نسبت‌های کاشت در علف‌هرز بیش‌تر از برنج بود. سن نشاء سوروف‌آبی تنها در سال اول آزمایش بر تعداد پنجه، شاخص سطح برگ، و وزن خشک برگ دو گونه، و هم‌چنین بر کل ماده خشک تولیدی علف‌هرز تأثیر گذاشت؛ امّا در سال دوم چنین نشد. سن نشاء علف‌هرز اثری بر ارتفاع نهایی گیاهان نداشت. به‌طور کلی براساس یافته‌های این آزمایش می‌توان اظهار داشت که سوروف رقیب قوی‌تری نسبت به برنج است؛ چنان‌که اثر حضور گونه‌ی رقیب بر برنج بیش‌تر از سوروف‌آبی بود. این مسئله توانایی بیش‌تر علف‌هرز در جبران کاهش اولیه گیاهچه از طریق پنجه‌دهی و رشد بیش‌تر به‌واسطه قابلیت رقابت بیش‌تر را نشان می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Emergence Time in Nursery and Density of Watergrass (Echinochloa oryzoides) on Competitive Ability with Rice (I. During Season Studies: Growth and Development)

نویسندگان [English]

  • elmira mohammadvand 1
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
  • Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati 2
  • Bizhan Yaghoobi 3
1 University of Guilan
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Scientific board member of Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Investigating the competitive effects of watergrass (Echinochloa oryzoides) as a new-introduced weed species in rice production of Guilan province is of major importance. Consequences of watergrass–rice competition are influenced by each species proportion and density; although could be greatly affected by relative weed seedling emergence time. Furthermore to analyze crop-weed competition, the variation in plant traits that confer competitive ability should be considered. Total dry matter and leaf area as the basic processes in vegetative growth, and plant height, dry weight, and leaf area index as the indications of the relative size, photosynthetic capacity, and productivity, affect competitive ability. Rice traits were associated with competitiveness against weeds included Initial biomass, crop growth rate, leaf area index, and biomass at tillering.
Documenting watergrass and rice differences in growth or structure and plants changes over the course of a growing season contribute to explain the severity of watergrass as a weed in transplanted rice. The objectives of this study were to compare growth characteristics of weed and crop species and investigate growth pattern changes during the growing season.
Materials and Methods
During two years of a field study, the effect of watergrass seedling ages at the time of transplanting (10, 20, and 30 day), and planting proportions of watergrass: rice in each hill ( 0:4, 1:3, 2:2, 3:1, and 4:0, (weed: rice)) were examined as a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Growth characteristics of rice and watergrass under full-season competition evaluated by six and five destructive samples respectively in first and second years of experiment. At each sampling interval, plants were returned to the laboratory, where the height (by recording the highest extended leaf), the number of tillers (by hand counting total number of tillers) the leaf area index (by measuring the leaf area with an automatic area meter (Li-cor ,LI-2500)), and dry weight of leaves, stems and total plant (by drying at 75 C until a constant weight was reached) were determined separately for each weed and rice species. Sampled plots were not sampled at subsequent harvests. Below-ground biomass was not included in the measurements.
Results and Discussion
According to the results, tiller number, leaf area index, leaf dry weight, and total dry weight of rice increased with increasing seedling number in plant proportions; while final height did not affect. For watergrass, tiller number and total dry weight were also influenced by plant proportion, and increased as weed ratio at the planting proportion was raised. planting proportion caused no significant effect on final height, maximum leaf area index and leaf dry weight of watergrass, and differences among treatments disappeared over the growing season.
At the planting proportion of 1:3 (weed: rice) tiller number of two species was similar in most samples, but was higher for weed than rice at the other mixtures. Maximum leaf area index, leaf maximum dry weight, and total dry weight of watergrass in all planting proportions were higher than rice. Weed seedling ages had significant effects on tiller number, leaf area index, and leaf dry weight of two species, and also total dry weight of watergrass at the first year, but such a effect did not observe in the second year.
Conclusion
Totally based on results, it could be stated that watergrass is more competitive than rice; where the relative aggressiveness of component species was significantly higher for rice than weed. this is probably because of more growth compensation ability of weed through rapid growth and high tillering when it germinate later in the growing season, and because of its stronger competitiveness relative to the rice.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Emergence patterns
  • Planting proportion
  • Transplanted rice
  • Weed seedling age
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