اثر همزیستی با گونه‌های میکوریزا و پرایمینگ بذر بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) در سطوح تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی کرج

2 بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان هرمزگان

چکیده

این تحقیق به­منظور بررسی تأثیر تنش خشکی، پرایمینگ بذر و همزیستی با گونه­های قارچ میکوریزا آربوسکولار بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 3  تکرار در سال­های 1393 و 1394 در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی حاجی­آباد هرمزگان اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی تنش خشکی شامل: آبیاری بر اساس تأمین 100درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (آبیاری نرمال)، تأمین70 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (تنش ملایم) و تأمین50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (تنش شدید)، فاکتور فرعی پرایمینگ در سه سطح: بدون پرایمینگ (شاهد)، هیدروپرایمینگ و اسموپرایمینگ و فاکتور فرعی دیگر شامل سطوح قارچ میکوریزا: بدون استفاده از قارچ میکوریزا (شاهد)، استفاده از گونه‌هایGlomus mosseae  و Glomus intraradices بودند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس مرکب داده­ها نشان داد که اثر ساده تنش خشکی تأثیری معنی­دار (P≤0.01) بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی داشت. اثر تلقیح میکوریزا بر تمامی پاسخ­های گیاهی اندازه­گیری شده (P≤0.01) و تیمار پرایمینگ بر صفت تعداد دانه در هر کپسول (P≤0.01) و همچنین بر صفات وزن هزاردانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک دارای تأثیری معنی­دار (P≤0.05) بود. اثرات برهمکنش آبیاری × میکوریزا فقط بر صفت عملکرد دانه (P≤0.05)، اثرات برهمکنش میکوریزا × پرایمینگ بر صفت تعداد دانه در هر کپسول (P≤0.01) و بر صفت وزن هزاردانه (P≤0.05) معنی­دار بود. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه و تمامی صفات اندازه گیری شده، مربوط به آبیاری با تأمین 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (آبیاری نرمال) به­دست آمد. افزایش مقدار آبیاری از 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به 100 درصد نیاز آبی، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک را به میزان­های 4/39 و 7/26 درصد بهبود بخشید. تلقیح با قارچ میکوریزا گونه­های  G. mosseaeو  G. Intraradices نسبت به عدم مصرف قارچ میکوریزا، عملکرد دانه را به میزان­های 4/10 و 7/4 درصد بهبود داد. پرایمینگ بذر نسبت به عدم پرایم بذر عملکرد دانه را به میزان 2 درصد افزایش داد. هر چند تنش خشکی باعث کاهش عملکرد کنجد شد، ولی استفاده از قارچ میکوریزا شدت اثر آن را کاهش داد. همچنین، تأثیر دو گونه میکوریزا بر عملکرد کنجد و اثر آنها بر کاهش خسارت تنش متفاوت بود، به­طوری­که قارچ میکوریزا G. mosseae دارای قدرت همزیستی بیشتری در مقایسه با G. intraradices بود و از افت شدید عملکرد کنجد در شرایط تنش خشکی جلوگیری نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect on Mycorrhizal Fungi Symbiosis and Priming on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame Seeds at Levels of Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • abdolhossein askari 1
  • Mohammad Reza Ardekani 1
  • Saeed Vazan 1
  • Farzad Paknejad 1
  • Yaaghoob Hosseini 2
1 Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Iran
2 Soil and Water Research Department, Hormozgan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Bandar Abbas, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Drought stress is one of the most important factors limiting growth and crop production in the arid and semi-arid world. Plant response to drought stress depends on the type, severity, and duration of stress, plant species, and stress occurrence stage and farm management.
The sesame, among crop plants, is resistant to drought and heat stress and has great importance in the agriculture development of arid and semi-arid region for summer planting. But this plant is sensitive to drought stress at seedling stage and during flowering to grain filling. To overcome the drought stress, the biological solution is one of the basic strategies that should be considered and can be noted the mycorrhizal fungi. One of the most important types of mycorrhizal is arbuscular rmycorrhizal Fungi, which is important in terms of agriculture; because most crops and horticultural ability to coexist with this type of mycorrhiza.
Materials and Methods
In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation levels and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis on yield and yield components of sesame, an experiment was carried out as split-factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Haji Abad, Hormozgan province, Iran during growing season 2014-2015. Experimental factors included: drought stress as main factor in 3 levels: 100% water requirement (normal irrigation), 70% water requirement (moderate stress)and 50% water requirement (Severe stress), the priming as sub factor in 3 levels: without priming (control treatment), hydropriming and osmopriming and the mycorrihizal fungi application as other sub-factor in 3 levels: [without mycorrihizal fungi application(control), mycorrihizal fungi application (Glomus mosseae) and mycorrihizal fungi application (G. intraradices).
Results and Discussion
Analysis of variance data showed that the effect of drought stress had significant effect (P≤0.01) on all traits were studied. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation was significant on measured plant responses (P≤0.01). Priming treatments were significant on seed number per capsule (P≤0.01) and thousand grain weight and grain yield, biological (P≤0.05). Interaction effects of mycorrhiza × irrigation was only significant on grain yield (P≤0.05), the effects of the interaction of mycorrhiza × priming on seed number per capsule (P≤0.01) and the thousand grain weight (P≤0.05) were significant. The results also showed that the highest grain yield and all measured traits obtained when using irrigation water requirement by 100 percent (normal irrigation). Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi species G. mosseae and G. intraradices compared to lack of mycorrhizal fungi (control treatment) improved yield by 10.4 and 4.7 percent. Priming treatments compared to non-primed (control treatment) increased seed yield by as much as 2 percent. Drought stress decreased sesame yield, however, the using mycorrhizal fungus can be reduced that effect. The effect of two species of mycorrhizal on sesame yield and their effect on reducing stress damage was different; So that mycorrhizal symbiosis G. mosseae has more than the G. intraradices and avoided the sharp drop in sesame yield in drought stress treatments.
Conclusion
The results of this study showed that drought stress and water shortage decreased significantly yield and yield components of sesame. Mycorrhizal fungi improved the absorption of moisture and nutrients under water stress and increased plant resistance to water stress, therefore increased yield and yield components of sesame. The species of G. intraradices fungi compared to G. mosseae was more efficient in terms of resistance to water stress. Thus, it seems that mycorrhizal, in addition to improving the yield due to increased root system development and consequently increasing the availability of moisture and access to nutrients, can have a positive effect on reducing the effects of irrigation deficiency on sesame plants. Seed priming, due to better germination, rapid seedling growth, proper establishment and, finally, the optimal use of nutrients and environmental factors, ultimately increased yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Biological yield
  • Hydropriming
  • Mycorrhizal Symbiosis
  • Water requirements
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