ارزیابی اثر عوامل مختلف زراعی و اجتماعی بر عملکرد نخود (Cicer arietinum L.): مطالعه موردی استان کرمانشاه- دهستان سنجابی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه رازی

2 دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر برخی عوامل تأثیرگذار بر عملکرد نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) دیم، آزمایشی به‌صورت پیمایشی با نمونه برداری از 85 مزرعه نخود در سال زراعی 94-1393 در سه روستا واقع در دهستان سنجابی شهرستان روانسر استان کرمانشاه انجام شد. به منظور جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از دو روش الف) تکمیل پرسش‌نامه توسط کشاورزان صاحب هر مزرعه و ب) نمونه‌برداری مستقیم از مزرعه، استفاده شد. اطلاعات مستخرج از پرسشنامه شامل روش خاکورزی، تاریخ کاشت، روش کاشت، تراکم کاشت، نوع رقم، تناوب زراعی، مدیریت علف‌های هرز، تاریخ برداشت همچنین عوامل اجتماعی شامل سن، سطح سواد، مساحت اراضی کشاورز و نوع روستا بودند. نمونه‌برداری از مزراع نیز قبل از برداشت به‌صورت تصادفی در شش نقطه از هر مزرعه با استفاده از کوادرات به ابعاد 1×1 متر انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد نخود بسته به نوع مدیریتی زراعی و عوامل اجتماعی تفاوت معنی‌داری را نشان داد. بر این اساس، انجام دو بار خاکورزی قبل از کشت، استفاده روش‌های مکانیزه کاشت، مدیریت علف‌های هرز و همچنین انتخاب تاریخ کاشت و برداشت مناسب، به‌ترتیب 7/21، 3/17، 1/20، 7/16 و 0/15 درصد باعث افزایش معنی‌دار عملکرد نخود در منطقه مورد مطالعه شد. علاوه بر این، دو عامل سطح سواد و سابقه کشاورز نیز به عنوان عوامل مهم در افزایش عملکرد محصول و کاهش علف‌های هرز مطرح بودند. به‌طوری‌که با افزایش تجربه کشاورزان عملکرد نخود نیز 2/25 درصد افزایش پیدا کرد. همچنین کشاورزان با سطح سواد بالا و پائین در مقایسه با کشاورزان با سطح سواد متوسط، 9 درصد عملکرد بیشتری را برداشت کردند که به نظر می‌رسد علت این امر عدم تمرکز کشاورزان با سطح سواد متوسط بر فعالیت‌های کشاورزی باشد. همچنین سکونت در مقایسه با عدم سکونت در روستا نیز با افزایش احتمال توجه کشاورز به عملیات داشت، افزایش 21 درصدی عملکرد نخود را به دنبال داشت. بطور کلی می‌توان بیان داشت که بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر تولید محصولات زراعی در شرایط واقعی، می‌تواند با افزایش آگاهی در مورد اثر هر یک از این عوامل، مدیریت بهتر بخش کشاورزی را به همراه داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Various Agronomic and Social Factors Impacts on the Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): A Case Study, Kermanshah Province, Sanjabi Rural District

نویسندگان [English]

  • Naser Sohrabi 1
  • Alireza Bagheri 2
  • Farzad Mondani 2
  • Iraj Nosrati 2
1 Razi University
2 Razi university
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as the most important bean crops of Iran affected by various factors, including tillage for soil preparationsowing date, sowing method, sowing density, the type of crop varieties, crop rotation, management of pests, diseases and weeds, harvesting date, as well as social factors such as experience, education level of farmers and agricultural facilities. In order to assess the impact of common various factors on chickpea yield production, the study was conducted as field survey in Sanjabi rural district, Kermanshah, Iran. In this study, we tried to consider the most important agronomic and social factors affecting yield production of pea in the study area.
Materials and Methods
An experimental survey was conducted in three villages located in Sanjabi Rural district in the Kermanshah province in 2015 with a sampling of 85 chickpea fields. Data collection was done by two ways including completing the questionnaire by farmers and direct sampling of the farm. Information extracted from the questionnaire covers tillage, sowing date, sowing method, seed rate, seed varieties, crop rotation, weed management, harvesting date, and also social factor including experience, education level and the area of land owned by farmers, and village type. Sampling of farms was done randomly in six points of each farm using quadrate size 1m*1m and yield of chickpea were recorded.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that applying twice tillage before planting, using mechanized sowing techniques, weed management and selection of appropriate planting and harvesting date significantly increased the yield of chickpea in the study area. Accordingly, twice plowing in winter and before sowing in comparison with once plowing before sowing, with the average yield of 277.2 and 227.7 kg.ha-1, respectively , sowing in March in comparison with April, the average yield of 285.2 and 244.3 kg.ha-1, respectively , mechanized sowing  in comparison with hand spreading sowing, with the average yield of 287.2 and 245.2 kg.ha-1, respectively, seed rate of 45 in comparison with 35 kg.ha-1 for sowing, with the average yield of 277.6 and 235.5 kg.ha-1, respectively, mechanical weed control in comparison with without weed control with the average yield of 298.8 and 248.7 kg.ha-1, respectively, and harvesting date in late June (297.3 kg.ha-1) in comparison with harvesting date in mid-June and mid-July (275.5 and 258.5 kg.ha-1 , respectively) had significant differences in average grain yield of chickpea. In addition, two social factors of experience of farmers and education level are important factors in increasing crop yield. So, enhancing the experience of farmers resulted in high chickpea yield. Thus, that the highest and lowest chickpea yield was observed in the farms belonging to farmers over the age of 60 years and farmers aged 20 to 30 years, respectively. Farmers with high and low educational level harvested more grain yield of chickpea compared to the farmers with mean educational level as well. . It seems that lack of farmers with average education level to agricultural activities is the reason of it. Moreover, the results showed that the village residence status had significant effects on chickpea yield. Residence in village with increasing the probability of the farmer's attention, led to an increase in the chickpea yield.
Conclusion
This data would be helpful in understanding the effective agronomic activities and the farmer’s attributes on chickpea yield in the studied area. Evaluation the crop production using real information of the fields could lead to increase the awareness of managers and thus taking proper decisions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chickpea production
  • Crop management
  • Farmer characteristics
  • Field survey
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