مستندسازی فرآیندهای تولید گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) در سیستم‎های آبی و دیم در استان گلستان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی


1 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

3 گروه اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران


مستند‎سازی از قدم‌های اولیه و اساسی در بهبود هر فرآیند تولیدی است که متأسفانه جایگاه درخوری در بخش کشاورزی کشور ندارد. مستندسازی فرآیند تولید یک محصول در کشاورزی شامل تهیه کلیه اطلاعات و فعالیت‎هایی است که سیر تولید آن محصول از مرحله آماده‌سازی بستر بذر تا برداشت را نشان می‎دهد. در این مطالعه به منظور بهره‎گیری از این ابزار در جهت بهبود فرآیندهای تولید گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) در دو سیستم آبی و دیم استان گلستان، کلیه فعالیت‎ها و مصرف نهاده‎ها که هر مدیر مزرعه در طی سه سال گذشته به طور معمول انجام داده یا مصرف کرده است، در 540 مزرعه با مدیریت‌های مختلف ثبت گردید. نتایج مستندسازی نشان داد که میانگین مساحت مزارع آبی بیشتر از دیم بود. اکثر مزارع آبی قبل از گندم زیر کشت دو محصول تابستانه‌ی سویا Glycine max L.)) و برنچ (Oryza sativa L.) بودند، بیشتر مزارع دیم محصول تابستانه نداشته و اکثر مزارع در سال قبل نیز زیر کشت گندم و جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) بودند. اکثر تولیدکنندگان گندم آبی و دیم از گاوآهن و دیسک به عنوان خاک‌ورزی اولیه استفاده کرده‌اند. همچنین بیشترین نوع ادوات کشت در تولید گندم در هر دو سیستم، خطی‎کار بود. رقم مروارید بیشترین رقم مورد استفاده در هر دو سیستم کشت گندم دیم و آبی بود. مقدار بذر مصرفی در سیستم دیم بیشتر و تاریخ کشت نیز از گستردگی زمانی بیشتری نسبت به کشت آبی برخوردار بود. 50 درصد از مزارع مورد بررسی در بخش آبی و دیم به ترتیب حداقل از 95 و 70 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص استفاده کردند. در هر دو سیستم بیشترین استفاده از علف‎کش ‎مربوط به گرانستار و تاپیک، بیشترین استفاده از قارچ‎کش مربوط به تیلت و بیشترین استفاده از آفت‌کش دیازینون بود. ترجیح کشاورزان به استفاده از روش‎های سنتی آبیاری برای مزارع بود. دامنه زمانی برداشت گندم از اواسط اردیبهشت تا اواخر خرداد بود. میانگین عملکرد گندم آبی 3845 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود که از دیم با عملکرد 3145 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشتر بود. نتایج این مطالعه با ارایه تصویری کلی از زیر فرآیندهای تولید گندم در سیستم‎های آبی و دیم و مشخص‌سازی دقیق مقدار و زمان ورود نهاده‌ها به فرآیند تولید امکان ارزیابی‎های جامع‌نگر تولید گندم در گلستان از دیدگاه‌های زیست محیطی، اقتصادی و جامعه‌شناختی را میسر می‌سازد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Documenting the Process of Wheat Production in Irrigated and Rain-fed Systems in Golestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Tahmasebi 1
  • Mahmood Ramroudi 1
  • Afshin Soltani 2
  • Ahmad Ghanbari 1
  • Barat Ali Fakheri 3
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
3 Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran
چکیده [English]

Documentation is a fundamental and basic step to improve each productive process, which unfortunately does not have a significant place in the agricultural section of Iran. Production process management in agricultural systems have a direct effect on yield, productivity, input use efficiency, energy consumption and the environmental impact of production. Therefore, the need of monitoring and improving the processes leading to the production of agricultural products is inevitable in order to reduce the challenges associated with farm management in agricultural systems. The first and essential step in improving such process is achievement to the specific and integrated vision on how the activities carry out in current situation, so called process documentation. Documenting the production process in agriculture includes providing all information and activities that shows the course of production from seedbed preparation stage to harvest stage. Depending on weather conditions, Golestan, together with Fars, Khuzestan, Kurdistan and Kermanshah, has been one of the most wheat producing provinces in the country in most years (Bureau of Statistics and Information Technology).
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted in the province of Golestan, in the north of the country, which is located between 36°30 ′ N–38°8′ N and 53°51′ E–56°22′ E. Among the crops in the province of Golestan, autumn wheat has the highest growing area, usually grown from the end of November to the end of December, with an average temperature of 14.5 °C and a total rainfall of 420 mm, and harvested during June. In this study, in order to utilize this method to improve wheat production in both irrigated and rainfed systems of Golestan province, all management operations performed from seedbed preparation stage to harvest stage were recorded on 540 farms with different management. Proportions that farmers applying different method of the management operations were determined through relative and cumulative frequency distribution. In this investigation, the variations and methods of doing each management operation were identified. The cumulative or relative frequency distribution was used to analyze the data.
Results and Discussion
Documentation results show that the average area of irrigated farms was more than rainfed farms. Most of irrigated farms were cultivated by two summer crops including soybean and rice before sowing wheat. Most of rainfed farms had no summer crop but they were cultivated by wheat and barley in the previous year of sowing wheat. Most of producers of irrigated and rainfed wheat have used the moldboard and disks as a primary tillage. In addition, the most type of equipment which used in cultivation of wheat in both systems was grain drill. Morvarid cultivar was the dominant cultivar which used in both irrigated and rainfed wheat systems. Applying more seed rate and extended sowing window in rainfed system comparing with irrigated system were another results of this survey. Half of farmers have used at least 95 and 70 kg Nitrogen fertilizer in the irrigated and rainfed investigated farms, respectively. In both systems, Geranstar and Topic were the most used herbicides, Tilt was the most used fungicide and Diazinon was the most used pesticide. Farmers preferred to use of conventional irrigation for their farms. The harvesting time of wheat was ranged from the early May to middle of June. The average yield of irrigated wheat was 3845 kg ha-1 and more than rainfed wheat with 3145 kg ha-1.
The results of this survey provide a broad vision of sub-processes of wheat production in irrigated and rainfed systems and specification of the exact amount and time of using inputs into production process which could allow a holistic assessment of Golestan province with respect to environmental, economic and sociological perspectives.
This research is part of the Ph.D thesis of the first author at Zabol University. We are grateful to Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (GUASNR) and Zabol University. We are also grateful to Dr. H. Kashiri (Director of Agricultural Extension of Golestan province) and the farmers in our study for their patience and support.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Assessment
  • Environmental impact
  • Herbicide
  • yield
  • Using inputs
Akhavan, M. 2002. Evaluate the effectiveness of quality management systems based on ISO 9000 standard series, with a focus on business processes and operations in Iran. A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of M.Sc. Technological Faculty of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bazrgar, A.B. 2011. Environmental Assessment of Khorasan Sugar beet Production Systems Using LCA Ph.D. PhD Dissertation, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bureau of Statistics and Information Technology. 2015. Department of Plant production improvement, Agriculture Organization of Golestan province. The Ministry of Agriculture verified 5 March 2016. (In Persian)
Gazor, M.R., and Loghavi, M. 2007. Influence of shallow tines on draft requirement of subsoiler and soil physical conditions. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 73: 111-105. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hajjarpoor, A. 2016. Yield gap evaluation of wheat in Golestan Province. PhD Dissertation, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Hajjarpoor, A., Soltani, A., and Torabi, B. 2015. Using boundary line analysis in yield gap studies: Case study of wheat in Gorgan. Electronic Journal of Crop Production 8: 183-201. (In Persian with English Summary)
Kalateh Arabi, M., Qujeq, H., Nuriniya, A., Suqhi, H., Sheikh, F., Dehghan, M.A., Kia, S., Jafarbye, J.A., Fallahi, H.A., Sadeqhnezhad, H.R., Kiyani, A., Kazemi Talachi, M., Islami, K., Aqhajani, M.A., Mobasheri, M.T., Baqherani, N., Savarinejad, A., and Mohammadi, R. 2013. Technical instructions wheat in Golestan province. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan province, Golestan, Iran. (In Persian)
Khajehpour, M.R. 2013. Cereals. Isfahan University Press, Isfahan, Iran. 782 pp. (In Persian)
Latifi, N., Faraji, A., and Seyedi, F. 2012. Principles of Agronomy. Written by Yellamanda Reddy, T. and Sankara Reddi, J. H. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. 688 p. (In Persian)
Moshiri, F., Tehrani, M.M., Shahabi, A.A., Keshavarz, P., Khougar, Z., Feyzi Asl, V., Asadi Rahmani, H., Samavat, S., Sadri, M.H., Rashidi, N., Saadat, S., and Khademi, Z. 2015. Guidelines integrated management of soil fertility and wheat nutrition. Soil and Water Research Institute 100 p. (In Persian)
Rezvantalab, N. 2015. Investigation of factors affecting the fuel consumption of soybean production in the Golestan province. PhD Dissertation, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Solhjoo, A.A., and Niyazi Ardakani, J. 2001. Effect of subsoiler operations on soil physical specifications and yield of irrigated wheat. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 2: 78-65. (In Persian with English Summary)
Soltani, A., Rajabi, M.H., Zeinali, E., and Soltani, E. 2013. Energy inputs and greenhouse gases emissions in wheat production in Gorgan, Iran. Energy 50: 54-61.
Torabi, B., Soltan, A., Galeshi, S., and Soltani, E. 2012. Documenting the process of wheat production in Gorgan. Journal of Plant Production 19(4): 19-42. (In Persian with English Summary)
Turner, A.R., and Detoro, I.J. 2000. Process Redesign, PH. PTR, USA.
Van Ittersum, M.K., Cassman, K.G., Grassini, P., Wolf, J., Tittonell, P., and Hochman, Z. 2013. Yield gap analysis with local to global relevance-A review. Field Crops Research 143: 4-17.
Zarei, B., and Zarei, A. 2004. Extensive documentation processes in the government sector: Provide a Strategy. Journal of Civil Engineering, Bimonthly of Shahed University 8: 15-30. (In Persian with English Summary)
Zeinali, E. 2009. Wheat Nitrogen in Gorgan; Agronomical, Physiological and Environmental Aspects. PhD Dissertation, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)