بررسی تأثیر زمان برداشت بر ویژگی‌های کمّی و کیفی علوفه کنگر فرنگی (Cynara scolymus L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تبریز

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی ویژگی‌های کمّی و کیفی علوفه کنگر فرنگی (Cynara scolymus L.) در مراحل مختلف رشدی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان طی سال‌های زراعی 1394-1393 و 1395-1394 به اجرا در آمد. تیمارها شامل برداشت علوفه در مراحل مختلف رشدی (مرحله رشد رویشی، گلدهی و ابتدای بذردهی) بودند. اندام هوایی گیاه در سال دوم رشد برداشت شد و پس از خشک شدن کامل نمونه­ها، عملکرد ماده خشک و برخی صفات کیفی مهم شامل قابلیت هضم ماده آلی، پروتئین خام، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده­های اسیدی، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده­های خنثی، خاکستر و عناصر معدنی شامل سدیم و پتاسیم اندازه­گیری شدند. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده اثر برداشت در مراحل مختلف فنولوژیکی بر کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه معنی­دار بود. در سه مرحله زمانی مورد مطالعه بیشترین عملکرد ماده خشک مربوط به مرحله ابتدای بذردهی و کمترین آن متعلق به رشد رویشی بود. کیفیت علوفه در مرحله رویشی بیشتر از کیفیت علوفه در مراحل گلدهی و ابتدای بذردهی بود به‌طوری‌که پروتئین خام و قابلیت هضم ماده آلی بیشتر و الیاف نامحلول در شوینده­های اسیدی و الیاف نامحلول در شوینده­های خنثی در مرحله رویشی کمتر از سایر مراحل بود. درصد خاکستر و محتوای عناصر معدنی شامل سدیم و پتاسیم نیز در مرحله رشد رویشی بیشتر از مراحل گلدهی و ابتدای بذردهی بود. به طور کلی می­توان مرحله گلدهی را مناسبترین زمان برداشت علوفه کنگر فرنگی از لحاظ کمی و کیفی پیشنهاد نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Harvesting Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Forage

نویسندگان [English]

  • marziyeh allahdadi 1
  • Yaghoub Raei 1
  • Babak Bahreininejad 2
  • Akbar Taghizadeh 1
1 University of Tabriz
2 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous perennial plant of Mediterranean origin, North Africa, Canary Isles and Southern Europe. Nowadays, artichoke is cultivated in many parts of the world, such as the United States, mainly in California, in South America (Argentina, Chile, Peru), North Africa, Near East (Turkey and Iran) and China. Artichoke has a medicinal property. It also can be used as a green fodder or silage for livestock feeding. In addition to dry matter yield, forage quality has also a great importance in the production of forage crops. The quality of forage species varies in different places and times. In general, the factors affecting forage quality changes can be described as environmental factors (light, temperature, soil characteristics, precipitation, altitude, wind, and humidity), growth stage and harvest time, plant species, photosynthetic pathway (C3, C4, and CAM) and management factors. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the forage quality of artichoke in different growth stages for livestock feeding.
Materials and Methods
In order to evaluate the yield and forage quality of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) at three stages of growth, an experiment was conducted using a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications at the Research Station of Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources. The treatments were harvested at three growth stages (vegetative, flowering and early seeding). Seeds were sown on 26 April 2014. Chemical fertilizer (urea) applied based on soil analysis results. The first half of the nitrogen fertilizer was utilized as strip takes under seed before sowing and the rest at 7-8 leaf stage of the crop on 26 May 2014. The cultural practices of Artichoke were not conducted in the second year because it is a perennial plant. According to the soil test, half of the nitrogen fertilizer in the first year of experiment applied in the second year. The plants were harvested at vegetative, flowering and the beginning of seed ripening stages in the second year. After harvesting, samples were dried normal air circulation until to reach constant dry weight. Dry matter yield and forage quality indices as crude protein, organic matter digestibility, total ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Na and K contents were measured. Analysis of variance was done using SPSS software and comparison of the means was conducted using by Duncan at 5% level.
Results and Discussion
The results of this experiment showed significant differences for all traits among the phenological stages (p<0.05). For dry matter, the lower and higher values of 5.8 and 8.75t ha-1 were obtained, in vegetative and early seeding stages, respectively. Forage quality decreased with increasing plant age and it was the highest in the vegetative stage compared to other stages. Crude protein, organic matter digestibility, total ash, Na and K content in the vegetative stage were more amount than other stages. Neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber tended to increase while, crude protein, organic matter digestibility, total ash, Na and K content tended to decrease with advanced plant maturity. Artichoke plant has young and large leaves at vegetative rosette stage. The leaf to stem ratio decreased with advanced plant maturity and it is higher at flowering stage than the early seeding stage. Forage quality in the vegetative stage was more than of both flowering and the early seeding stages.
Conclusions
Growth stage and harvesting time were the important factors that affecting forage yield and quality of Artichoke. For age quality decreased with the progress in plant growth, while dry matter yield increased. Generally, the flowering stage is the best time for harvesting artichoke forage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Artichoke
  • Forage quality
  • Crude protein
  • Organic matter digestibility
Ainalis, A.B., Tsiouvaras, C.N., and Nastis, A.S. 2006. Effect of summer grazing on forage quality of woody and herbaceous species in a silvopastoral system in northen Greece. Journal of Arid Environments 67: 90-99.
AOAC. 2007. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of official analytical chemists. Arlington, USA. 28 pp.
Arzani, H., Zohdi, M., Fisher, E., Zaheddi Amiri, G.H., Nikkhah, A., and Wester, D. 2004. Phonological effects on forage quality of five grass species. Journal of Range Management 57: 624-630.
Atis, I., Konuskan, O., Duru, M., Gozubenli, H., and Yilmaz, S. 2012. Effect of harvesting time on yield, composition and forage quality of some forage sorghum cultivars. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 14: 879‒886.
Ceccarelli, N., Curadi, M., Picciarelli, P., Martelloni, L., Sbrana, C., and Giovannetti, M. 2010. Globe artichoke as functional food. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 3: 197-201.
Chen, C.S., Wang, S.M., and Chang, Y.K. 2001. Climatic factors, acid detergent fiber, natural detergent fiber and crude protein contents in digitgrass. Proceeding of the XIX International Grassland Congress, Brezil Pp. 632-634.
Dosi, R., Daniele, A., Guida, V., Ferrara, L., Severino, V., and Di Maro, A. 2013. Nutritional and metabolic profiling of the globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. 'Capuanella' heads) in province of Caserta, Italy. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7: 1927-1934.
Christaki, E., Bonos, E., and Florou-Paneri, P. 2012. Nutritional and functional properties of Cynara Crops (Globe Artichoke and Cardoon) and their potential applications: A review. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2(2): 64-70.
Erfanzade, R. 2001. Study of quality changes of pasture forage (Trifolium repens L.) in two phonological stages of flowering and seeding. Proceeding of the Second national Seminar on Range and management in Iran. (In Persian)
Fateh, E., Chaichi, M.R., Ashorabadi, E.S., Mazaheri, D., Jafari, A.A., and Rengel, Z. 2009. Effects of organic and chemical fertilizers on forage yield and quality of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Asian Journal of Crop Science 1(1): 40-48.
Fedorak, P.M., and Hrudey, S.E. 1983. A Simple apparatus for measuring gas production by methanogenic cultuvesin serum bottles. Environmental Technology 4: 425–35.
Ghadaki, M.B., Van Soest, P.Y., Mcdowell, R.E., and Malekpour, B. 1974. Composition and In-vitro digestibility of some arid zone forage from Iran. In: XII International Grassland Congress, vol.III, part 1, Moscow, p: 542-549.
Grant, R., Anderson, B., Rosby, R., and Madder, T. 1997. Testing livestock feeds for beef cattle. Dairy Cattle, Sheep and Horses G 89-915.
Ierna, A., and Mauromicale, G. 2010. Cynara cardunculus L, genotypes as a crop for Energy purposes in a Mediterranean environment. Biomass and Bioenergy 34: 754–760.
Iqbalsultani, J., Rahim, I.U., Yaqoob, M.A., Nawaz, H., and Hameed, M. 2008. Nutritive value of free rangeland grasses of Northern grasslands of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(1): 249-258.
Izadi Yazdanabadi, F., Esmailpor Akhlamad, U., Omidi, A., and Behdani, M.A. 2013. Evaluation of fox tail millet (Setaria italica) forage quality in different growth stages. Agroecology 5(3): 282-288. (In Persian with English Summary)
Karimi, M.M. 1992. Isfahan Province Climate. Budget and Planning Organization of Isfahan Province, Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian)
Meneses, M., Megias, M.D., Madrid, J., Martinez-Teruel, A., Fernandez, F., and Oliva, J. 2007. Evaluation of the phytosanitary, fermentative and nutritive characteristics of the silage made from crude artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by-product feeding for ruminants. Small Ruminant Research 70: 292-296.
Menke, K.H., and Steingass, H. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research Development 28: 7-55.
Modirshanechi, M. 2004. Production and Management of Forage Plants (Translated). Fourth edition. Razavi Publication, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian)
Mohajer, S., Ghods, H., Taha, R.M., and Talati, A. 2012. Effect of different harvest time on yield and forage quality of three varieties of common millet (Panicum miliaceum). Scientific Research and Essays 7(34): 3020-3025.
Pandino, G., Lombardo, S., Mauromicale, G., and Williamson, G. 2011. Profile of polyphenols and phenolic acids in bracts and receptacles of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) germplasm. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24: 148-153.
Pasandi, M., Kavian, A., and Dorri, M.A. 2011. The nutritive value of Lathyrus sativus forage cut at four stages of growth in Gorgan. Animal Sciences Journal (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi), 89: 28-32. (In Persian with English Summary)
Relling, E.A., Niekerk, W.A., Coertze, R.J., and Rethman, N.F.G. 2001. An evaluation of Panicum maximum cv. Gatton The influence of stage of maturity on diet selection, intake and rumen fermentation in sheep. South African Journal of Animal Science 31(2): 85-91.
Rostamza, M. 2004. Evaluation of quantitive and qualitative characteristics of some forage cereal (Sorghum, Millet and Corn) in second culture after barley and effects on next yield plant (Wheat). MSc thesiss at University of Tehran. Pp. 92. (In Persian).
Sarwar, M., Nisa, M., Khan, M.A., and Mushtaque, M. 2006. Chemical Composition, herbage yield and nutritive value of Panicum antidotale and Pennisetum orientale for nili buffaloes at different clipping intervals. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 2: 176-180.
Sleugh, B.B., Moore, K.J., Brummer, E.C., Knapp, A.D., Russell, J., and Gibson, L. 2001. Forage nutritive value of various amaranth species at different harvest dates. Crop Science 41: 466-472. (In Persian with English Summary)
Snyman, L.D., and Joubert, H.W. 1996. Effect of maturity stage and method of preservation on the yield and quality of forage sorghum. Animal Feed Science and Technology 57: 63-73.
Stodart, L.A., Cook, C.V., and Harris, L. 1975. Determining the digestibility and metabolism able energy of winter range plant by sheep. Journal of Animal Science 11: 578-590.
Tabatabaei, S.M., Najaf-nejad, B., Zamani, P., Taghizadeh, A., Ahmadi, A., and Aliarabi, H. 2011. Estimating chemical composition, degradation parameters and gas production of Persian clover nutrients at different plant's growth stages. 42(3): 255-264. (In Persian with English Summary)
Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B., and Levvis, B.A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non starch polysaccharides in ration to animal nutrition. Journal of Animal Science 74: 3583-3597.