کیفیت بذرهای حاصل از گیاهان کتان (Linum usitatissimum L.) تلقیح شده با میکروارگانیسم‌های خاکزی در شرایط کم آبی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

رابطه بین قارچ مایکورایزا و باکتری­های مرتبط با آنها، بدلیل جایگزینی با کودهای شیمیایی اهمیت زیادی در کشاورزی پایدار دارد. به­منظور بررسی اثرات احتمالی قارچ­های مایکورایزا در ارتباط با باکتری حل­کننده فسفر روی کیفیت بذر حاصل از گیاهان کتان (Linum usitatissimum L.)، آزمایشی بصورت فاکتوریل بر پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ارومیه بصورت دو ساله انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل گونه­های قارچ مایکورایزا (Rhizophagus intraradices، Funneliformis mosseae و عدم تلقیح)، باکتری حل­کننده فسفر (تلقیح بذر با Pseudomonas putida P13 و عدم تلقیح) و سه رژیم آبیاری (آبیاری پس از 60، 120 و 180 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر) بودند. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش فاصله آبیاری از 60 تا 120 میلی­متر، در گیاهان شاهد (بدون تلقیح)، درصد فسفر، پتاسیم، موسیلاژ، و فاکتور تورم و تورم برای هر گرم موسیلاژ بذر، همچنین پتاسیم تراوشی بذر (شاخص صدمه به غشای سلولی) افزایش و با بیشتر شدن تنش در 180 میلی­متر کاهش یافتند. در کلیه سطوح آبیاری، هم­افزایی ناشی از تلقیح توأم قارچ و باکتری باعث بیشترین درصد فسفر، پتاسیم، موسیلاژ و تورم موسیلاژی بذر شد. درصد و سرعت جوانه­زنی در بذور حاصل از تلقیح، با توجه به افزایش حجم موسیلاژ بذر، روند نزولی داشت. البته در تنش شدید بیشترین سرعت و درصد جوانه­زنی از تلقیح توأم بدست آمد. بنابراین از نظر موسیلاژ و جوانه­زنی، می­توان بسته به هدف تولید، دو نوع کیفیت برای بذر کتان تعریف کرد. به­طور کلی بیشترین افزایش در بهبود کیفیت بذر از نظر عناصر غذایی، پروتئین بذر و تولید موسیلاژ، در تلقیح توأم گیاهان با قارچ و باکتری مشاهده شد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Quality of Flax Seeds Harvested from Plants Inoculated with Soil Microorganisms Underwater Deficit Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • saeedeh rahimzadeh
  • Alireza Pirzad
Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their associated bacteria has great importance for sustainable agriculture especially in the case of highly mycorrhizal plants such as flax seed. Bio-fertilizers use in sustainable agricultural systems is important in production and enables plants to absorb more water from soil and improves plant nutrient uptake and photosynthesis. The alleviating effect of the AMF symbiosis in response to drought generally relies on the uptake and transport of water and on an improved uptake of nutrients. The cooperation of bacteria and mycorrhizal is probably due to specific attributes of micro-organisms that make the mother plants more tolerant to drought stress .The interacting effects of mycorrhizal colonization and phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB) inoculation on plant vegetative growth and crop yield have been studied previously. But, the impact of these above micro-organisms on the plant reproduction and the actual (quality) crop yield has received much less attention. Thus the main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMF species, PSB and their interactions on the quality of harvested flax seeds.  
Materials and Methods
A 2-year field experiment was conducted at the Urmia University, Urmia city, located at North-West of Iran during the years 2014 and 2015. The experimental design was factorial (three factors) based on a randomized complete block with three replications. The treatments were included two AMF species (Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus intraradices and non-mycorrhizal control), PSB (Pseudomonas putida P13 and non-inoculated control) and three irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120 and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan). Seeds were sown into a loamy soil at a depth of 2 cm in plots. Mycorrhizal inoculum was placed in the planting rows below the seeds. For bacterial treatments, the seeds were inoculated with bacterial suspension of Pseudomonas putida strain P13 before being immediately planted. At the end of the growing season, when the plants had produced mature seeds, samples were taken. Seed factors included germination percentage, nutrient percentage (N, P and K), mucilage percent, swelling factor, electrical conductivity and potassium leakage (parameters as a result of damage to seed cell membranes) were measured. Finally, data was analyzed using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by Student Newman Keul’s test at 5% level of probability.
Results and Discussion
Combined ANOVA of 2-yr data showed a significant interaction effect of irrigation regimes multiply by bacteria and mycorrhiza on the final germination percent, mucilage content, swelling factor, swelling rate per gram mucilage, seed nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), and potassium leakage, and significant interaction of year multiply by irrigation regimes and mycorrhiza on the electrical conductivity in flax seeds. Results indicated that with increasing irrigation interval from 60 to 120 mm of evaporation in control (non-inoculated) plants, phosphorus percent, potassium percent, mucilage percent, swelling factor and swelling rate per gram mucilage, and potassium leakage were in high level. These above traits decreased with increasing in severe stress up to 180 mm of evaporation. With increasing drought stress in flax plants (from irrigation after 60 to 180 mm evaporation), protein content and final germination percentage and rate of harvested seeds were decreased. Mycorrhizal and bacterial inoculation of flax plants, especially dual inoculation, compensated a part of drought-induced seed protein reduction. In all irrigation regimes, the highest percentage of phosphorus, potassium, mucilage and swelling factor were observed in dual inoculated plants due to synergistic effect of mycorrhiza and PSB. This synergistic effect led to reducing cell membrane damages that indicated the vigorous seeds. But a downward trend of seeds germination percentage harvested from inoculated plants, related to higher mucilage volume and its negative correlation with seed germination.
Conclusion
A mixture of AMF and bacteria improved the results more than they were for the non-inoculated control plants. The development of multi-functional microbial inoculants seems to be a promising method to increase the positive effects of micro-organisms. In this study, the participation of micro-organisms contributed to a higher quality and vigor of flax seeds. Assessment the effects of plant-beneficial micro-organisms (Pseudomonas putida and two mycorrhizal species, alone or/and in combination) on the quality of flax seeds obtained from plants grown in the field, showed the beneficiary of dual colonization.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Mucilage
  • Mycorrhizal fungi
  • Pseudomonas
  • Seed germination
Abdolahi, M., and Maleki Farahani, S. 2015. Evaluation of seed yield, mucilage and protein of different species and ecotypes of balangu (Lallemantia spp.) under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 31: 676-687. (In Persian with English Summary)
Agrawal, R.L. 1999. Seed Technology. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. LTD. New Delhi. P. 829.
Ansary, M.H., Asadi Rahmani, H., Ardakani, M.R., Paknejad, F., Habibi, D., and Mafakheri, S. 2012. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescent on proline and phytohormonal status of maize (Zea mays L.) under water deficit stress. Annals of Biological Research 3:1054-1062.
Atarodi, H., Irannejad, H., Shiranirad, A.H., Amiri, R., and Akbari, G.A. 2011. Effects of drought stress and planting dates on seedling emergence, plant growth and seed vigour of produced seeds in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 42: 71-80. (In Persian with English Summary)
Auge, R.M. 2001. Water relations, drought and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mycorrhiza 11: 3-42.
Bai, Y., Tischler, C.R., Booth, D.T., and Taylor, E.M. 2003. Variations in germination and grain quality within a rust resistant common wheat germplasm as affected by parental CO2 conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 50: 159-168.
Baradar, A., Saberi Riseh, R., Sedaghati, E., and Akhgar, A. 2015. Mycorrhiza helper bacteria. Plant Pathology Science 4: 46-53. (In Persian with English Summary)
Bayrak, A., Kiralan, M., Ipek, A., Arslan, N., Cosge, B., and Khawar, K.M. 2010. Fatty acid compositions of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) genotypes of different origin cultivated in Turkey. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 24: 1836-1842.
Benami, A., and Ofen, A. 1984. Irrigation Engineering-Sprinkler, Trickle and Surface Irrigation: Principles, Design and Agricultural Practices. Irrigation Engineering Scientific Publications. p. 257.
Bhatty, R.S. 1993. Further compositional analyses of flax: mucilage, trypsin inhibitors and hydrocyanic acid. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 70: 899-904.
Chapman, H.D., and Pratt, P.F. 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soils, Plant and Waters. University of California. P. 309.
Cui, W., and Mazza, G. 1996. Physicochemical characteristics of flaxseed gum. Food Research International 29: 397-402.
Devau, N., Le Cadre, E., Hinsinger, P., Jaillard, B., and Gerard, F. 2009. Soil pH controls the environmental availability of phosphorus: Experimental and mechanistic modeling approaches. Applied Geochemistry 24: 2163-2174.
Dimkpa, C., Weinand, T., and Ash, F. 2009. Plant-rhizobacteria interactions alleviate abiotic stress conditions. Plant, Cell and Environment 32: 1682-1694.
Feller, U. 2004. Proteolysis. In: Plant Cell Death Processes, Ed. Elsevier Inc. 107-123.
Gholinezhad, R., Sirousmehr, A.R., and Fakheri, B. 2016. Evaluation of irrigation regimes and use of organic fertilizers on qualitive and quantitive yield of borage (Borago officinalis L.). Journal of Crop Physiology 10: 683-696. (In Persian with English Summary)
Habibzadeh, Y., Pirzad, A., Zardoshti, M.R., Jalilian, J., and Eini, O. 2013. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on seed and protein yield under water-deficit stress in mung bean. Agronomy Journal 105: 79-84.
Hampton, J.G., and Tekrony, D.M. 1995. Handbook of Vigour Test Methods. 3rd Edition. Published by: International Seed Testing Assemblage (ISTA). Zurich, Switzerland.
Hassani, F., Asgharzade, A., Ardakani, M.R., Hamidi, A., and Paknejad, F. 2015. Effectiveness of phosphate solubilizing bacteria inoculation for improving phosphorus absorption and root growth indices. Biological Forum - An International Journal 7: 199-205.
Hopkins, W.G., and Huner, N.P.A. 2008. Introduction to Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA. P. 528.
Kafi, M., Borzoee, A., Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masoumi, A., and Nabati, J. 2007. Physiology of Environmental Stresses in Plants. Mashhad Jahad-e Daneshghahi. Mashhad, Iran. p. 502. (In Persian)
Kalyanasundaram, N.K., Amin, D.R., and Dalal, K.C. 1980. Quality Evaluation of Isabgol Seeds. In: Biannual report (from Oct. 1978 to Nov. 1980) of all India Coordinated Project on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand. p. 125-127.
Kuchenbuch, R., Claassen, N., and Jungk, A. 1986. Potassium availability in relation to soil moisture. I. Effect of soil moisture on K diffusion, root growth and K uptake of onion plants. Plant and Soil 95: 221-231.
Marcos-Filho, J. 1998. New approaches to seed vigor testing. Scientia Agricola 55: 27-33.
Minaxi, Saxena, J., Chandra, S., and Nain, L. 2013. Synergistic effect of phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and yield of wheat plants. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 13: 511-525.
Mohammadkhani, N., and Heidari, R. 2008. Effects of drought stress on soluble proteins in two maize varieties. Turkish Journal of Biology 32: 23-30.
Moradi, K., Hamdi Shangari, A., Shahrajabian, M.H., Gharineh, M.H., and Madandost, M. 2010. Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) response to irrigation intervals and different nitrogen levels. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 26: 196-204. (In Persian with English Summary)
Neetu, N., Aggarwal, A., Tanwar, A., and Alpa, A. 2012. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens at different superphosphate levels on linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) growth response. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 72: 237-243.
Omidbaigi, R. 1997. Approaches of the Production and Processing of Medicinal Plants.Vol 2. Tarrahan Nashr Press, Tehran, Iran. p. 424. (In Persian)
Owusu-Apenten, R.K. 2002. Food Protein Analysis: Quantitative Effects on Processing. Marcel Dekker Inc., The Pennsylvania State University, New York, USA. p. 463.
Pirzad, A.R., Tajbakhsh, M., and Darvishzadeh, R. 2012. Effect of water deficit stress on seed composition, seed germination and seedling growth in german chamomile. Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 21: 139-156. (In Persian with English Summary)
Popa, V.M., Gruia, A., Raba, D.N., Dumbrava, D., Moldovan, C., Bordean, D., and Mateescu, C. 2012. Fatty acids composition and oil characteristics of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) from Romania. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 18: 136-140.
Rahimi, A., Jahansoz, M.R., and Rahimian Mashhadi, H. 2014. Effect of drought stress and plant density on quantity and quality charactristics of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forssk.) and French Psyllium. Journal of Crop Production and Processing 4: 143-156. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rejali, F., Mardoukhi, B., and Malakouti, M.J. 2011. Effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on water use efficiency, proline accumulation, and mineral uptake of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under saline condition. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture 24: 111-122. (In Persian with English Summary)
Sabannavar, S.J., and Lakshman, H.C. 2008. Interactions between Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on two varieties of Sesamum indicum L. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 194: 470-478.
Samaei, F., Asghari, S.H., Aliasgharzadeh, N., and Sarikhani, M.R. 2015. Effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi on some soil hydraulic properties and nutrient uptake by spring barley in an alkaline soil under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture 6: 169-179. (In Persian with English Summary)
Seymour, N.P. 2003. Responses of linseed to vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, phosphorus and zinc in a vertisol. Ph.D Thesis, School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia. p. 263.
Seyed Sharifi, R. 2014. Industrial Plants. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili Press. Ardabil, Iran. p. 432. (In Persian)
Soltanian, M., and Tadayyon, A. 2015.Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on some agronomic characteristics on linseed (Linum ussitatissimum L.) under drought stress. Journal of Plant Production Research 22: 1-21. (In Persian with English Summary)
Thingstrup, I., Rubaek, G., Sibbesen, E., and Jakobsen, I. 1998. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) depends on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for growth and P uptake at intermediate but not high soil P levels in the field. Plant and Soil 203: 37-46.
Vieira, R.D., Tekrony, D.M., and Egli, D.B. 1992. Effect of drought and defoliation stress in the field of soybean seed germination and vigor. Crop Science 32: 471-475.
Witztum, A., Gutterman, Y., and Evenari, M. 1969. Integumentary mucilage as an oxygen barrier during germination of Blepharis persica (Burm.) Kuntze. Botanical Gazette 130: 238-241.
Yousefi, A.A., Khavazi, K., Moezi, A.A., Rejali, F., and Nadian, H.A. 2011. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi impacts on inorganic phosphorus fractions and wheat growth. World Applied Sciences Journal 15: 1310-1318.