ارزیابی امکان نشاءکاری آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) در شرایط آب و هوایی کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه رازی

چکیده

آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) از گیاهان زراعی است که به­منظور تولید روغن یا آجیل زراعت می­شود. به­منظور ارزیابی امکان نشاءکاری آفتابگردان در شرایط آب و هوایی استان کرمانشاه این پژوهش در دو بخش گلخانه و مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه در دو سال (94 – 1393) انجام شد. آزمایش در سال اول به­صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار بود که فاکتورها شامل سه روش کاشت (کشت مستقیم بذر، کشت نشاء چهار هفته­ای و کشت نشاء شش هفته­ای) و دو تاریخ کاشت (کشت زود هنگام و کشت زمان معمول) بود. آزمایش در سال دوم به­صورت طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد که تیمارها شامل نشاءکاری چهار هفته­ای زودهنگام (تیمار برتر سال اول) و کشت مستقیم بذر (شاهد) بود. نتایج سال اول نشان داد که بیشترین ماده خشک تولید شده و بالاترین سطح برگ مربوط به نشاء چهار هفته­ای زودهنگام بود که جهت تکرار آزمایش برای کشت در سال دوم انتخاب شد. نتایج پژوهش در سال دوم نشان داد که نشاءکاری در مقایسه با کشت مستقیم بذر به­طور معنی­دار باعث افزایش تعداد برگ، سطح برگ، ماده تازه و خشک بوته، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد دانه در طبق، وزن مغز و وزن پوست دانه، عملکرد دانه و وزن صد دانه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating Possibility of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)Transplanting in Kermanshah Climate

نویسندگان [English]

  • zhaleh zarei
  • Hassan Heidari
  • iraj nosratti
  • mahmood khoramivafa
razi
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the plants cultivated for oil or seed. Sunflower oil contains many useful fatty acids. One of methods to increase plant yield and decrease input consumption is transplanting. Transplanting can increase seed yield components such as head number per plant, seed number per head, 1000-seed weight. Transplanting increased seed yield and quality compared to direct seeding due to no frost at the beginning of growth season and increasing flowering length. By delaying transplanting, seed germination or transplant establishment is reduced. Time interval from seeding till beginning and terminating flowering length can be reduced by delaying at seeding, but by transplanting flowering duration length increases. Drought losses crop productions especially at plant critical growth periods such as seed filling stage. In arid and semi-arid areas like Iran, water shortage leads farmers to plant low- water crops. By transplanting of sunflower, water can be saved, because seedling can be grown by a little water in controlled condition. In addition, some plant growth stages coincide with cool and rainy weather in spring. Many farmers use transplanting for warm season crops, but transplanting of sunflower has not been well studied. This research was aimed to assess sunflower transplanting under common sowing date and early sowing in Kermanshah climate condition.
Material and Methods
An experiment was conducted at greenhouse and research field, campus of agriculture and natural resources, Razi University in 2015 and 2016. In the first year, factors included three planting methods (direct seeding, 4-week transplanting and 6-week transplanting) and sowing date (early sowing, common date sowing). In the second year, treatments included 4- week transplanting at early sowing (superior treatment in the first year) and direct seeding (control). At harvesting stage, four plants per plot were selected and traits such as plant height, stem height, stem diameter, leaf number, internode length, leaf width, leaf length, leaf fresh weight, stem fresh weight, seedling fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and biomass were measured. Leaf greenness was measured by SPAD device and stomatal conductance was measured by porometer device. Leaf area was determined by digimizer software. Leaf relative water content, chlorophyll a and b, seed yield and yield components also were measured. Data were analyzed by SAS software. Mean were compared using LSD test.
Results and Discussion
Analysis of variance of 2015 data, showed that planting method and planting date had significant effect on plant height, leaf relative water content, dry matter and leaf area. 4-week transplant at early planting date had the highest dry matter production and leaf area selected for the second year. It seems that by delaying in transplanting, sunflower plant become more sensitive to cold air and low temperature damages plants, so lower dry matter production was produced. Results of the second year showed that transplanting increased green leaf number, leaf area, chlorophyll a, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leaf to stem ratio, stem length, plant height, seed number per head, dehulled seed weight, hull weight, seed yield and 100-seed weight. It seems in transplanting, maximum stem length, plant height, green leaf number and leaf area was occurred when sunlight was maximum, so plant had higher radiation use efficiency and dry matter production. In addition, transplanting had higher seed yield than seeding probably due to weed suppression, rapid establishment, shorter growth duration and faster flowering. Transplanting increased seed yield and weight due to lack of coincidence of plant critical stages to adverse environmental conditions, suitable plant cover, prolonging the grain filling period and store assimilates in grain.
Conclusion
In conclusion, it is suggested to plant 4-week sunflower transplant at early date in Kermanshah climate condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry matter
  • seeding
  • Seed yield
  • Transplanting
  • Yield components
Aghayari, F., Faraji, A., and Kordkatooli, A. 2016. Determination of yield and yield components response of soybean (Glycine max L.) to swing date, temperature and sunshine hours. Journal of Agroecology 7(4): 547-562. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ala, A., Aghaalikhani, M., Amiri Larijani, B., and Soofizadeh, S. 2014. Light use efficiency of rice varieties under direct seeding and transplanting systems with weed interference. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 45(1): 147-160. (In Persian with English Summary)
Aron, D. 1949. Copper enzymes isolated chloroplasts, polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology 24: 1- 15.
Asgarnezhad, M.R., Zaraei, G.R., and Zarezadeh, A. 2015. The effect of planting date and plant density on yield and yield components of black mustard (Brassica nigra) the weather conditions. Abarkuh Electronic Journal of Crop Production 8(3): 183-198. (In Persian with English Summary)
Daneshian, J., Jamshidi, E., Ghalavand, A., and Farrokhi, E. 2008. Determination of the suitable plant density and planting date for new hybrid (CMS-26 × R-103) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 10(1): 72-87. (In Persian with English Summary)
Dong, H.Z., Li, W.J., Tang, W., Li, Z.H., and Zhang, D.M. 2005. Increased yield and Revenue with a seedling transplanting system for hybrid seed production in Bt cotton. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 191(2): 116-124.
Ghamkhar, F., Hassanpour, A.G., Bagheri, S., and Mohamadi, A.H. 2011. Effect of medium composition type and bed volume on production and establishement of transplanted watermelon CV. Crimson Sweet. National Conference on Advances in Agronomy, Quds City, Islamic Azad University, Quds city Branch, Iran Available at: http://www.civilica.com/Paper-NCAAGRI01-NCAAGRI01_181.html. (In Persian)
Ghiasabadi, M., Khajeh-Hosseini, M., and Mohammad-Abadi, A.A. 2014. Investigating effects of transplanting date on growth indexes and yield of forage corn (Zea mays L.) in Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 12(1): 137-145. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ghorbani, R., Miralavi, S.V.A., and Sabet timori, M. 2013. Effect of sowing density and date of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on density and weed biomass in Shirvan climate conditions. Journal of Agroecology 4(4): 294-306. (In Persian with English Summary)
Golmohammadi, M.J., and Nahvi, M. 2009. Effects of different dates of transplanting on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield and its components as second crop after rice in Ghilan (Rasht) conditions. Journal of Agroecology 1(2): 8-81. (In Persian with English Summary)
Guilani, A.A., Siadat, S.A., and Fathi, G. 2003. Effect of plant density and seedling age on yield and yield components in 3 rice cultivars in Khusestan growth conditions. Iranian Journal Agriculture Sciences 34(2): 427-438. (In Persian with English Summary)
Heidari Zolleh, H., Bahraminejad, S., Maleki, G., and Papzan, A.H. 2009. Response of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) to sowing date and plant density. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 5: 597-602.
Jamshidi, E., Ghalavand, A., Salehi, A., Javad Zare, M., and Jamshidi, A.R. 2009. Effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal on yield, yield components and plant characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 11(1):136-150. (In Persian with English Summary)
Karimzade Asl, K.H., Mazaheri, D., and Peighambari, A. 2003. Effect of four irrigation intervals on the seed yield and quantitive characteristics of three sunflower cultivars. Iranian Journal Agriculture Sciences 34(2): 293-301. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khajehpour, M.R. 2012. Industrial Plants. Jihade-Daneshgahi of Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran 571 pp. (In Persian)
Shukla, Y.R., Chhopal, T., and Sharma, R. 2011. Effect of age of transplants on growth and yield of capsicum. International Journal of Farm Sciences 1(2): 56-62.
Mazahery-Laghab1, H., Salvati, S., and Mahmoudi, R. 2012. Response of the yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivar Armavirski to sowing time and plant density in rain fed conditions in Ghorveh Kordestan. Plant Production Technology 11(2): 63-74. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mirzaee, Y., and Khodadadi, M. 2008. The survey of production methods effects (transplant, onion set and seed) on the some traits in onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars at continued production design in Jiroft region. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi 80: 69-76. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ozalkan, C., Seprto, H., and Daur, I. 2010. Relationship between some plant growth parameters and grain yield chickpea during different growth stages. Turkish Journal of Field Crops 15(1): 79-83.
P30download. 2016. Digimizer, software for precise measurement of things existing in images. Available at Web site http://p30download.com/fa/entry/35475/ (verrified 13 April 2016).
Paseban Islam, B. 2009. Comparing the yield of winter rapeseed cultivars in different planting dates. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(10): 2-10. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rabiee, M., Alinia, F., and Tousi Kehal, P. 2011. Effect of transplanting date on seed yield and its components of four rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars as second crop in Rasht in Iran. Seed and Plant Production Journal 2- 27(2): 251-267. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rahnama, A.A., and Bakhshandeh, A.M. 2006. Effect of sowing dates and direct seeding and transplanting methods on agronomic characteristics and grain yield of canola under Ahwaz conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 7(4): 324-336. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rao, A.N., Johnson, D.E., Sivaprasad, B., Ladha, J.K., and Mortimer, A.M. 2007. Weed management in direct-seeded rice. Advances in Agronomy 93: 153-255.
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Bromand Rezazadeh, Z., Mohamad Abadi, A.A., and Sharif, A. 2008. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 6(2): 303-313. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Motlagh, M. 2007. Effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in Islamabad-Ghayein. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 76: 62-68. (In Persian with English Summary)
Roshdi, M., Heydari Sharifabad, H., Karimi, M., Noor Mohammadi, G., and Darvish, F. 2006. A survey on the impact of water deficiency over the yield of sunflower seed cultivar and its components. Journal of Agriculture Sciences (1): 109-122. (In Persian with English Summary)
Taleie1, N., Hamidoghli, Y., Rabiei, B., and Hamidoghli, S. 2012. Effects of plant density and transplanting date on herbage, stevioside, phenol and flavonoid yield of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 4(6): 298-302.
Turner, N.C., and Kramer, P.J. 1980. Adoptation of plant to water and high temperature stress. Forest Science 27(4): 640.