اثرات تاریخ کاشت، زمان آبیاری و کاربرد گیاهان پوششی بر رشد و عملکرد زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثرات زمان‌های کاشت بهاره، تابستانه و پاییزه و نیز مدیریت آبیاری و استفاده از گیاهان پوششی، بر ویژگی‌های رشد و عملکرد گیاه دارویی زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال‌های زراعی 89-1388 و 90-1389، به صورت کرت‌های دوبار خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از: تاریخ کاشت بهاره، تابستانه و پاییزه زعفران به عنوان فاکتور اصلی (اول خرداد ماه، اول مرداد ماه و اول مهر ماه)، مدیریت آبیاری به عنوان فاکتور فرعی (انجام آبیاری و عدم انجام آبیاری پس از هر تاریخ کاشت) و کاربرد گیاهان همراه در سال دوم آزمایش به عنوان فاکتور فرعی فرعی [شبدر ایرانی (Trifolium resopinatum L.)، خلر (Lathyrus sativus L.) و شاهد]. نتایج نشان داد که با تأخیر در کاشت بنه‌ها از اول خرداد به اول مهر، شاخص‌های کمی زعفران به طور قابل ملاحظه‌ای کاهش پیدا کرد و شدت کاهش در سال دوم آزمایش به مراتب بیشتر بود. بیشترین عملکرد گل در تاریخ کاشت مرداد ماه (به ترتیب 28 و 98 کیلوگرم در هکتار برای سال‌های اول و دوم آزمایش) و کمترین آن در تاریخ کاشت مهر ماه (به ترتیب 18 و 34 کیلوگرم در هکتار برای سال‌های اول و دوم آزمایش) به دست آمد. کاشت زعفران در تاریخ اول مرداد ماه موجب بهبود سرعت گل‌دهی و کاهش نسبی سرعت ظهور برگ گردید. عدم آبیاری پس از کاشت باعث افزایش شاخص‌های کمی زعفران شد؛ به طوری‌که عملکرد گل در تیمار انجام آبیاری پس از کاشت در سال اول نه و در سال دوم 43 کیلوگرم در هکتار و برای تیمار عدم انجام آبیاری در سال‌های اول و دوم به ترتیب 37 و 78 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. بیشترین تعداد گل در هکتار (480000 گل در هکتار) و نیز بیشترین درصد بنه‌های گل‌دهنده (100 درصد) در سال دوم آزمایش و در تیمار تاریخ کاشت خرداد ماه و عدم انجام آبیاری پس از کاشت به دست آمد. کاربرد گیاهان پوششی به خصوص خلر تا حدودی باعث بهبود ویژگی‌های رشد و عملکرد زعفران گردید؛ به طوری‌که استفاده از این گیاه پوششی، عملکرد گل و کلاله را در مقایسه با شاهد حدود دو درصد افزایش داد. همچنین بیشترین سرعت گل‌دهی و کمترین سرعت ظهور برگ در تیمارهای تاریخ کاشت خرداد ماه، عدم انجام آبیاری پس از کاشت و کاربرد گیاه پوششی خلر مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Planting Dates, Irrigation Management and Cover Crops on Growth and Yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Koocheki 1
  • p rezvani moghaddam 1
  • h.r fallahi 2
1 ferdowsi university of mashhad
2 University of Birjand
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Saffron as a winter active plant with low water requirement is the most strategic medicinal plant in arid and semi-arid parts of Iran. This slow-growing plant has narrow leaves and no aerial stem, hence weeds can be overcome it. Moreover, because of its root and canopy structure an important part of different resources is not used by this low input crop. Therefore, the use of associated crops could be an effective way for increasing resources use efficiencies (Koocheki et al., 2016). Appropriate corm planting date is another important factor that affects saffron growth and yield. Results of some studies show that late spring is the best time for corm planting (Ghasemi-Rooshnavand, 2009; Koocheki et al., 2016). In addition, irrigation management has been evaluated in some studies, but irrigation immediately after corm planting has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation management, planting date and the use of some companion crops on flowering of saffron during two growth cycles.
Materials and methods
This experiment was carried out as a split-split plot experiment based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2011. Experimental factors included: planting date of saffron as main factor (first of June, first of August and first of October, 2009), the irrigation management as sub factor (irrigation and no irrigation after each planting date) and the companion crops as sub-sub factor [Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum), Bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus) and control). Corm planting was done in 10×25 cm distances with 12 cm depth. In the second year irrigation was done again in the plots which were irrigated after planting in the first year at the same previous dates. Companion crops were sown after first flower picking (November, 2009), then their residue were returned to the soil in coming spring (May, 2010). Therefore, data were analyzed as split-plot in the first year and split-split-plot in the second year. Data analysis was done using SAS 9.1 and means were compared using Duncan multiple range test in 5% level of probability.
Results and discussion
Results showed that most growth and flowering indices of saffron were significantly affected by experimental factors. Quantitative indices of saffron were decreased considerably by delaying in planting date in both studied years. The highest flower yield was obtained in June planting date (28 and 98 kg.ha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively), while the lowest was shown in October planting date (18 and 34 kg.ha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively). Enhanced growth and yield of saffron in spring planting date is because of real dormancy stage of corms in this time. All studied indices were superior in no-irrigated treatments after planting in both studied years. The flower yield was 9 and 43 kg.ha-1 in 2009 and 2010 in irrigated treatments, respectively, while these values were 37 and 78 kg.ha-1in 2009 and 2010 in no-irrigation treatment, respectively. It has been reported that irrigation during the creation of the primary leaves in the corm buds is negative, while irrigation after this period and simultaneous with the beginning of primary reproductive organs creation is suitable for saffron flowering. The application of cover crops improved partially the quantitative indices of saffron, particularly in Bitter vetch treatment. In addition, the highest flowering rate and the lowest leaf appearance rate were observed in June planting date, no-irrigation and Bitter vetch cover crop treatment. The positive effects of short-growth cycle companion crops on saffron is related to improvement of soil physical, biological and chemical properties, soil temperature regulation, prevention from nutrient leaching, N-fixation by Fabaceae species and help to weeds control.
Conclusion
In total, saffron corm planting few days after the falling leaves in spring, no-irrigation after corm planting, avoidance from untimely summer irrigation and the use of appropriate winter cover crops are good strategies for saffron production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bitter vetch
  • Corm
  • Flowering rate
  • Medicinal plants
  • Persian clover
  • Saffron
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