تأثیر تناوب‌های زراعی مختلف بر عملکرد دانه و برخی خصوصیات زراعی گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) در شرایط دیم کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

مؤسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم

چکیده

این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثرات تناوب‌های مختلف بر عملکرد دانه و برخی خصوصیات زراعی گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) در شرایط دیم انجام گردید. آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار، در دو قطعه زمین مجاور هم در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم سرارود- کرمانشاه به مدت شش سال از پاییز 1385 تا تابستان 1391 اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل پنج تناوب دو ساله گندم-گندم، آیش-گندم، نخود-گندم، ماشک–گندم و گلرنگ-گندم بود. در قطعه زمین اول در سال اول گندم کشت گردید و در قطعه زمین دوم سایر گیاهان زراعی که در تناوب با گندم قرار می‌گرفتند کشت شدند، به‌ طوری‌که در هر سال هر دو جز تناوب وجود داشتند. برای بررسی اثر تناوب‌های زراعی بر صفات مختلف مورد بررسی در گندم در هر سال از داده‌های مربوط به قطعه زمینی که تمام تیمارها در آن سال گندم بود استفاده گردید. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر سال بر ارتفاع بوته و اجزا عملکرد دانه گندم معنی‌دار بود که حاکی از شرایط مختلف آب و هوایی در سال‌های آزمایش بود. اثر متقابل تناوب در سال نیز بر ارتفاع بوته و تعداد سنبله در متر‌مربع معنی‌دار بود و در آخرین دوره تناوب‌ها (سال 91-1390) اثر کشت مداوم گندم بر تعداد سنبله در متر‌مربع نمایان شد به طوری‌که در این سال کمترین تعداد سنبله در متر‌مربع در تیمار کشت متوالی گندم در مقایسه با سایر تناوب‌ها به دست آمد. نتایج عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه گندم نیز نشان داد که اثر سال و تناوب زراعی بر آن‌ها معنی‌دار بودند و تیمار گندم- گندم کمترین عملکرد را تولید نمود و سایر تناوب‌ها در کلاس بالاتر قرار گرفتند. طبق نتایج فوق کشت مداوم گندم باید به طور کلی در منطقه حذف گردد و تناوب گندم با هر کدام از گیاهان نخود (Cicer arietinum L.)، ماشک (Vicia dasycarpa Ten.) و گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.) با در نظر داشتن اهمیت تنوع زراعی و عملکرد اضافی این محصولات نسبت به آیش در منطقه کرمانشاه و سایر مناطق اکولوژیکی مشابه توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Crop Rotations on Grain Yield and some Agronomic Traits of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Dryland Conditions of Kermanshah

نویسنده [English]

  • abdolvahab Abdulahi
Dyland Agricultural Research Institute
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Crop sequencing with a particular arrangement in a 2-3 or more yearly period is known as crop rotation. Considering crop diversity and soil fertility crop rotation is essential because it prevents soil degradation which is a result of sequential cultivation of one crop causing nutrients imbalance, exudation of different compounds and antibiotics from crop roots. Determining crops sequencing, affects crops yield and its quality. It was reported by many researchers that including the forage crops and legumes as a winter crop in rotation either for forage production or green manuring, i.e. growing two or three crops annually was a necessary practice for improving the soil fertility as well as increasing the annual revenue. So, this study was conducted to investigate effects of different crop rotations on grain yield and some agronomic traits of wheat in dryland conditions.
Materials and methods
The experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications in two neighbor sites in dryland agricultural research sub-institute Sararood - Kermanshah during six years from autumn 2006 fall to 2012 summer. Treatments were concluded five crop rotations as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - wheat, fallow - wheat, chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) - wheat, vetch (Vicia dasycarpa Ten.) - wheat and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) - wheat. All crop rotations were included wheat so in one site the first year wheat was cultivated in all plots and in other site the other components of crop rotations were cultivated. Plot area was 10×20 m2. Plant height (10 randomized plants), number of spikes per meter square, number of seeds per spike, thousand seeds weight, biologic yield and grain yield were analyzed.
Results and discussion
Main effect of year on wheat plant height and yield components were significant and showed different climatically conditions in experiment years. Interaction effect of rotation × year was significant on wheat plant height and number of spikes per m2, and in the end of rotation period (2011-12) effect of continuous wheat appeared on number of spikes per m2 as in this year the lowest number of spikes per m2 in continuous wheat observed compare to other rotations. Ghaffari (2002) considered the rotation of chickpea, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and fallow with wheat and reported no significant effect on plant height of wheat in three period of rotation. The results of thousand kernel weight showed non significance difference among rotations and year × rotation interaction that were similar to results of Dogan et al. (2008) in two rotation period of wheat and sunflower, canola (Brassica napus L.), chickpea and forage pulses. Results of composite ANOVA for biologic and grain yield of wheat showed significant effect of year and treatment × year on these traits; and continuous wheat had the lowest yield and other rotations were located in higher classes. Continuous wheat treatment at the last year had the lowest spikes per meter square among rotations. Stevenson and Kessel (1996) stated an increasing trend in wheat grain yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.) – wheat rotation compared to continuous wheat due to breaking of diseases cycles and availability of potas, phosphorous and sulfur. Correlation between wheat grain yield in different rotations with total precipitation showed that in all rotations except continuous wheat, there was a positive significant correlation between precipitation and wheat grain yield. So, it can be concluded that continuous wheat has reduced the potential usage of optimum growing conditions.
Conclusion
Rotation of wheat with each of these crops (chickpea, vetch and safflower) can be proposed, considering the importance of crop diversity and additional yield of these crops.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chickpea
  • Fallow
  • Safflower
  • Sequential cultivation
  • Vetch
Chan, K.Y., and Heenan, D.P. 1993. Effects of lupine on soil properties and wheat production. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 44: 1971-1984.
Christen,O., Sieling, K., and Hanus, H. 1992. The effect of different preceding crops on the development growth and yield of winter wheat. Europian Journal of Agronomy 1: 21-28.
Cutforth, H.W., McGinn, S.M., McPhee, K.E., and Miller, P.R. 2007. Adaptation of pulse crops to the changing climate of the northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 99: 1684-1699.
Debaeke, P., and Hilaire, A. 1997. Production of rainfed and irrigated crops under different crop rotations and input levels in southwestern France. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 77(4): 539-548.
Dogan, R., Goksoy, T.A., Yagdi, K., and Turan, M.Z. 2008. Comparison of the effects of different crop rotation systems on winter wheat and sunflower under rain-fed conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology 7: 4076-4082.
Edalat, M., Ghadiri, H., Kamgar Haghighi, A., Emam, Y., Ronaghi, A., and Assad, M.T. 2006. Interactions of two crop rotations and nitrogen levels on grain yield and its components of two bread wheat cultivars under dryland conditions in Shiraz. Iranianian Journal of crop sciences 8(2): 106-120. (In Persian with English Summary)
Ghaffari, A. 2002. Study on rotation of wheat (Sardari cultivar) with sunflower, chickpea and fallow under dryland conditions. Plant and Seed 18: 130-143. (In Persian with English Summary)
Harder, H.J., Carlson, R.E., and Shaw, R.H. 1982. Yield, yield components, and nutrient content of corn grain as influenced by post-silking moisture stress. Agronomy Journal 74: 275-278.
Jamshidi, K. 2008. Study on some eco-physiologic traits of corn and cowpea in itercropping. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khan, M.A. 2002. Production efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as affected by inoculation, phosphorus levels and intercropping. PhD thesis in agronomy, Faculty agriculture, University of agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan p. 209.
Lopez-Bellido, L., Bellido, R.J.L., Castillo, J.L., and Bellido, F.J.L. 2000. Effect of tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization on wheat under rainfed Mediterranean conditions. Agronomy Journal 92: 1054-1063.
Lopez-bellido, L., and Fuentes, M. 1986. Lupin crop as an alternative source of protein. Advances in Agronomy 40: 289-295.
Mazaheri, D. 1994. Intercropping. Tehran University Press, Tehran, Iran 262 pp. (In Persian)
Mazaheri, D., and Majnoon Hoseini, N. 2001. Fandamental of Agronomy. Tehran University Press 320 pp. (In Persian)
McEwen, J., Darby, R.J., Hewitt, M.V., and Yeoman, D.P. 1989. Effects of field beans, fallow, lupins, oats, oilseed rape, peas, ryegrass, syssunflowers and wheat on nitrogen residues in the soil and on the growth of a subsequent wheat crop. Journal of Agricultural Science 115: 209-219.
Miller, P., Gan, Y., McConkey, B.G., and McDonald, C.L. 2003. Pulse crop for the northern Great Plains, II. Cropping sequence effects on cereal, oilseed, and pulse crops. Agronomy Journal 95: 980-986.
Park, B., Lopetinsky, K., Bjorklund, R., Buss, T., Eppich, S., and Laflamme, P. 1999. Park, B., and Lopetinsky, K., editors, Pulse crops in Alberta. AGDEX 142/20-1. Alberta Agricultur and Rural Development, Edmonton, AB.
Power, J.F. 1990. Fertility management and nutrient cycling p. 131-150. In R.P. Singh et al. (ed.) Dryland agricultural strategies for sustainability. Vol. 13. Advances in soil science. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Stevenson, F.C., and Kessel, C.V. 1996. The nitrogen and non-nitrogen rotation benefits of pea to succeeding crops. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 76: 735-745.
Syadat, S.A, Sadeghzadeh Hemayati, S., Fathi, G.H., and Abdali Mashhadi, A. 2009. Determination of the best suitable crop rotation for Ahvaz. Iranianian Journal of crop sciences 11: 174-192. (In Persian with English Summary)
Williams, C.M., King, J.R., Ross, S.M., Olson, M.A., Hoy, C.F., and Lopetinsky, K.J. 2014. Effects of three pulse crops on subsequent barley, canola, and wheat. Agronomy Journal 106: 343-350.
Yang, J., Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Zhu, Q., and Liw, L. 2001. Water deficit induced senescence and its relationship to the remobilization of pro-stored carbonin wheat during grain filling. Agronomy Journal 93: 196-206.
Zareafeizabadi, A., and Rostamzadeh, H.R. 2013. Effects of crop rotation on weed density, biomass and yield of wheat (Titicum aestivum L.). Journal of Agroecology 5(3): 318-329. (In Persian with English Summary)