عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Canola is the world third oil crop with 25 to 55 percent oil content (Hezbavi & Minaei, 2008). In recent years, tendency towards expansion of the acreage of canola in Iran has been increasing and for the years 2010-2011 an area of 93000 ha with a total production of 190000 tons has been reported (Ministry of Jihad of Agriculture, 2013). Application of biological fertilizers which are environmentally friendly agents have been reported to enhance yield and quality of different crops (Shoghi Kalkhoran et al., 2012; Afrasiabi et al., 2011). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of biological fertilizers on quantitative and quality criteria of canola.
Material and methods
For this study, a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design and three replicates was used. The experimental treatments were three canola cultivars namely Okapi, Zarfam and Modena which was combined with four levels of biological fertilizers: Nitroxin, Phosphat solubilizing bacteria (PSB), Nitroxin+PSB and a control. Seeds were planted in plots of 2×3 m2. All field managements were carried out based on conventional practices. The measured criteria were plant height, number of pods per plant, 1000- seed weight, biomass yield, harvest index, oil content and yield.
Results and discussion
The results showed that in all studied criteria except 1000- seed weight there were significant differences between cultivars. Different fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on all criteria except 1000- seed weight and HI. Modena cultivar had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. Composition of phosphate solubilizing bacteria+nitroxin also had the highest oil yield and quantitative characteristics. The interactions between biofertilizer treatments and cultivars in all criteria were not significant. The result of this experiment indicated the effectiveness of use of biofertilizers.
Afrasiabi, M., Amini Dehaghi, M., and Modarres Sanavy, A.M. 2011. Effect of phosphate biofertilizer Barvar- 2 and triple super phosphate fertilizer on yield, quality and nutrient uptake of Medicago scutellata, cv. Robinson. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture) 4: 43-54. )In Persian with English Summary)
Hezbavi, E., and Minaei, S. 2008. Determination and investigation of some physical properties of seven variety rapeseed. Food Science and Technology Research Journal 5: 21-28. )In Persian with English Summary)
Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture. 2013. Available at Web site http://www.maj.ir/portal/Home/Default.aspx?CategoryID=20ad5e49-c727-4bc9-9254-de648a5f4d52 (verified 12 march 2013)
Shoghi Kalkhoran, S., Ghalavand, A., and Modares Sanavi, S.A.M. 2012. Effects of biofertilizer and green manure (winter wheat) in combination with integrated nitrogen sources (chemical-farmyard manure) on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Environmental Sciences 3: 35-52. )In Persian with English Summary)
The effect of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield, essential oil percentage and some agroecological characteristics of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) under Mashhad conditions
E. Gholami Sharafkhane , M. Jahan2, M. Banayan Avval3, A. Koocheki4 and P. Rezvani Moghaddam4
Keywords: Cattle manure, Dry matter yield, Low input system, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Vermicompost
Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. Nowadays, the use of biofertilizers is increased in agriculture and their role in increasing the crops production has been demonstrated in many research works (Vessey, 2003; Chen, 2006; Mahfouz & Sharaf- Eldin, 2007). One of the most important visions is sustainable production of enough food plus paying attention to social, economical and environmental aspects. (Gliessman, 1998) stated that the first step to achieve this goal is optimization and improvement of resources use efficiencies.
Considering medicinal importance of savory and its role in the food and pharmaceutical industries (Omidbeigi, 2000), beside the limited nutrient resources and need to increase healthy production through using ecological inputs, this study was designed and conducted aimed to evaluate agroecological characteristics of savory as affected by the application of bio fertilizers, chemical and organic fertilizers under Mashhad conditions.
Materials and methods
In order to study the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of summer savory, a split-plot design based on RCBD with three replications was conducted during the growing season of 2012 at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Different levels of cattle manure (0 and 25 t.ha-1) were assigned to the main plots and different types of bio fertilizers (Nitroxin, containing Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., Biophosphor, containing phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp.), Biosulfur, containing sulfur-solubilizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ssp.), combination of Nitroxin+Biophosphor+ Biosulfur), vermicompost (7 t.ha-1), chemical fertilizers (NPK: 60, 60 and 70 kg.ha-1) and control (no fertilizer) were used in the sub- plots.
Results and discussion
According to the results, all studied characteristics including plant height, lateral branches, flowering shoot yield, stem yield, percentage of essential oil and dry matter yield were affected positively by cattle manure. The highest plant height and number of lateral branches resulted from vermicompost and combination of Nitroxin+Biophosphor+Biosulfur, respectively. Biosulfur fertilizer produced the highest dry matter yield, flowering shoot yield and stem yield. Percentage of essential oil was also significantly affected by fertilizer treatments as the most percentage of essential oil was obtained from Nitroxin, vermicompost and combination of Nitroxin+Biophosphor+Biosulfur. A positive and strong correlation was observed between dry mater yield and flowering shoot yield and stem yield, respectively.
The results indicated that application of organic and inoculation of biological fertilizers have positive effects on improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits of summer savory, so it could be considered as an alternative method for healthy production of summer savory.
The expenses for this research were funded by the Research and Technology Deputy of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of agriculture. The financial support is appreciated.
Chen, J. 2006. The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and/or biofertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. International Workshop on Sustained Management of the Soil-Rhizosphere System for Efficient Crop Production and Fertilizer Use. October 16-20. Thailand. 11 pp.
Gliessman, S.R. 1998. Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture. CRC Press. ISBN: 1-57504-043-3
Mahfouz, S.A., Sharaf- Eldin, A. 2007. Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Agrophysics Journal 21: 361-366.
Omidbeigi, R. 2000. Approaches to Production and Processing of Medicinal plants, vol. (3). Beh Nashr Publisher, Mashhad. (In Persian)
Vessey, J.K. 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant and Soil 255: 571-586.