اثر کابرد منفرد و تلفیقی کودهای زیستی، شیمیایی و آلی بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی ماریتیغال (Silybum marianum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه اثر کاربرد منفرد و تلفیقی کودهای زیستی، آلی و شیمیایی بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی ماریتیغال آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با دوازده تیمار و سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی90- 1389 اجرا شد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی شامل: شاهد، کود ورمی کمپوست، کود مرغی، کود شیمیایی، میکوریزا (Glomus mosseae)، بیوسولفور (Thiobacillus sp.)، میکوریزا + کود ورمی کمپوست، میکوریزا + کود شیمیایی، میکوریزا + کود مرغی، بیوسولفور+ کود ورمی کمپوست، بیوسولفور+ کود شیمیایی، بیوسولفور + کود مرغی بودند. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که این تیمارها تنها بر تعداد گل آذین در هر بوته، قطر گل آذین و عملکرد دانه تأثیر معنی دار داشتند و بر سایر صفات تأثیری نداشتند؛ با این وجود مقایسه میانگین ها نتایج امیدبخشی در راستای کاهش مصرف کود شیمیایی و جایگزینی آن با کودهای زیستی و آلی را اثبات کرد. کاربرد کود بیولوژیک بیوسولفور سبب افزایش 73 درصدی تعداد دانه در هر گل آذین نسبت به شاهد گردید. بیشترین و کمترین میزان عملکرد به ترتیب در تیمارهای میکوریزا (9/792 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و میکوریزا + کود شیمیایی (8/452 کیلوگرم در هکتار) حاصل شد. کاربرد تلفیقی میکوریزا + کود مرغی سبب افزایش 26 درصدی روغن بذور نسبت به کاربرد کود مرغی شد. بیشترین و کمترین غلظت سیلیمارین به ترتیب به بذور تحت تیمار میکوریزا (44/5 میلی گرم در میلی لیتر) و میکوریزا + کود شیمیایی (78/2 میلی-گرم در میلی لیتر) و بیشترین میزان سیلیبین به تیمار میکوریزا (33/3 میلی گرم در میلی لیتر) اختصاص داشت. چنین به نظر می رسد که در صورت نیاز به مکمل های غذایی می توان به کاربرد ساده و تلفیقی بعضی از کودهای زیستی و آلی جهت ایجاد تعادل در مصرف کودهای شیمیایی در راستای افزایش حاصلخیزی و ماده آلی خاک و نیل به سوی کشاورزی پایدار در زراعت ماریتیغال بیش از پیش توجه کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Single and integrated effects of biological, organic and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative traits of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • P Rezvani Moghaddam
  • R Ghorbani
  • M Nassiri Mahallati
چکیده [English]

In order to study individual and integrated effects of biological, organic and chemical fertilizers on milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) quantitative and qualitative traits, a field experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2010-2011. A complete randomized block design with twelve treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were: control, vermicompost (V), poultry manure (H), chemical fertilizer (CH), mycorrhiza (M) (Glomus mosseae), biosulfur (B) (Thiobacillus sp.), M+V, M+CH, M+H, B+V, B+CH, B+H. The results indicated that the all treatments affected the number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescences diameter and grain yield significantly and other traits weren’t affected by treatments. However, mean comparisons proved promising results for reduction in application of chemical fertilizer and its replacement with biological and organic fertilizers. Application of biosulfur increased the number of seeds per capitula in comparison with control up to 73%. The maximum and the minimum amounts of yield were obtained in M and M+CH, respectively. Other factors affected the yield approximately in the same rate. There was a significant enhancement (26%) in seed oil percentage by using M+H compared to poultry manure. The highest silymarin related to the use of Mycorrhiza and the lowest was obtained in M+CH. The maximum silybin was observed in Mycorrhiza treatment. The application of simple and integrated fertilization systems of organic and biological fertilizers can be effective to achieve a balance in applying chemical fertilizers in order to improve soil fertility, increase soil organic matter and also approach sustainable agriculture in farming milk Thistle.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biosulfur
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Oil percentage
  • Poultry manure
  • Silymarin
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