بررسی تأثیر بافت خاک و تراکم بر خصوصیات بنه و عملکرد گل زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه پیام نور

3 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر بافت خاک و تراکم بر عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک-های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در دو سال زراعی 1389-1388 و 1390-1389 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل شش بافت خاک مختلف لوم رسی، لوم سیلتی، لوم، لوم شنی، شن لومی و سیلت و دو تراکم کاشت (100 و 150 بنه در متر مربع) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تعداد و وزن خشک بنه زعفران به طور معنی داری تحت تأثیر نوع بافت خاک قرار گرفت (01/0p≤). بیشترین تعداد و میزان وزن بنه زعفران در بافت شن لومی مشاهده شد. بافت های خاک شن لومی، لوم شنی و سیلتی دارای بیشترین تعداد گل در واحد سطح بود و با یگدیگر اختلاف معنی داری نداشتند. بیشترین عملکرد کلاله در بافت خاک سیلتی به میزان 22/1 گرم در متر مربع بدست آمد، ولی اختلاف معنی داری با بافت خاک لوم شنی نداشت. بافت های لوم رسی، لوم و لوم سیلتی نیز کمترین میزان عملکرد کلاله (58/0 گرم در متر مربع) را به خود اختصاص دادند. همبستگی منفی معنی داری بین درصد رس خاک با تعداد و وزن خشک بنه، تعداد گل و عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران مشاهده شد، به طوری که با افزایش درصد رس، پارامترهای مورد بررسی، روند کاهشی غیر خطی نشان داد. در هر دو سال آزمایش، تراکم گیاهی بر تعداد گل و وزن خشک گل و کلاله تأثیر معنی داری نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation the effects of soil texture and density on corm characteristics and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Koocheki 1
  • E Azizi 2
  • A Siahmarguee 3
  • M Jahani Kondori 2
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of soil texture and density on corm and flower yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) an experiment was conducted as a factorial layout based on complete randomized block design with three replications at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during two growing seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. Treatment included 6 soil textures (clay loam, silty loam, loam, sandy loam, loamy sand and silt) with 2 plant densities (100 and 150 corms.m-2). Results indicated that the corm number and dry weight were affected by soil texture, significantly (p≤0.01). The highest number and dry weight of corms were observed in loamy sand texture. Loamy sand, sandy loam and silty texture had the maximum flower number. The highest stigma yield was obtained in silty texture (1.22 g.m-2), but with no significant difference with sandy loam. The lowest stigma yield was obtained in clay loam, loam and silty loam textures. A negative significant correlation was observed between clay percentage of soil and corm number and dry weight, flower number and flower and stigma yield. In two growing seasons, plant density didn’t have significant effect on flower number, flower and stigma dry weight.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Clay percentage
  • Dry weight
  • Flower number
  • Stigma
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