بررسی روابط رگرسیونی و همبستگی بین صفات ذرت دانه ای تحت تیمارهای مختلف کودی و شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثرات جداگانه و ترکیبی کودهای فسفاته، باکتری های حل کننده فسفات و قارچ مایکوریزا بر تعدیل و کاهش خسارات ناشی از تنش خشکی در مرحله رشد رویشی ذرت دانه ای هیبرید سینگل کراس 704 آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1388-1387 در مزرعه تحقیقات شماره سه پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران بصورت اسپلیت پلات و در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با دو فاکتور به اجرا در آمد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل تنش خشکی (به عنوان فاکتور اصلی) و ترکیبات مختلف کودی (به عنوان فاکتور فرعی) بودند. تیمارهای آبیاری در سه سطح به عنوان عامل اصلی براساس 50، 100 و 150 میلیمتر تبخیر تجمعی از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A و تیمارهای کودی در پنج سطح شامل b1 (باکتری های حل کننده فسفر + قارچ مایکوریزا)، b2 (باکتری های حل کننده فسفر+ قارچ مایکوریزا + 50 درصد سوپرفسفات تریپل)، b3 (باکتری های حل کننده فسفر + 50 درصد سوپر فسفات تریپل)، b4 (قارچ مایکوریزا + 50 درصد سوپرفسفات تریپل) و b5 (کود شیمیایی فسفره) به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر اصلی خشکی بر صفات ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک ساقه، قطر ساقه، ارتفاع تشکیل بلال، تعداد دانه در ردیف بلال، وزن 300 دانه، وزن بلال، طول بلال، قطر بلال، قطر چوب بلال، عمق دانه، درصد چوب و عملکرد کل دانه بسیار معنی دار بود. همچنین تأثیر تیمارهای مختلف کود بر صفات تعداد برگ در گیاه، قطر ساقه و ارتفاع بلال غیرمعنی دار و بر سایر صفات ارزیابی شده معنی دار بود. تمام صفات اندازه گیری شده در تیمارهای تلقیح با ترکیب باکتری های حل کننده فسفر، قارچ مایکوریزا و 50 درصد سوپرفسفات تریپل تحت شرایط کم آبیاری بالاتر از سایر تیمارها بودند. همبستگی ساده بین صفات و تجزیه رگرسیون گام به گام در هریک از شرایط بدون تنش، تنش خفیف و شدید خشکی محاسبه شد. رگرسیون گام به گام نشان داد صفات تعداد دانه در ردیف، وزن 300 دانه، تعداد ردیف دانه در بلال و ارتفاع بوته تحت شرایط تنش شدید خشکی بیش از 90 درصد از تغییرات عملکرد دانه را توجیه می کنند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تیمار بذور با ترکیب باکتری های حل کننده فسفر، قارچ مایکوریزا و 50 درصد سوپرفسفات تریپل تحت شرایط تنش رطوبتی تأثیری مثبت (03/12- درصد) بر کاهش خسارات وارده به گیاه و بالتبع افزایش اجزاء عملکرد وارد نمود که در نتیجه منجر به کاهش شدت تنش رطوبتی و افزایش عملکرد دانه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying correlation and regression equations between traits of grain corn under different fertilizer combinations and drought stress condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Zarabi
  • I Alahdadi
  • G.A Akbari
  • H Iranejad
  • G.A Akbari
چکیده [English]

In order to study the combined and separate effects of phosphorus fertilizer, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungus on adjusting and reducing the loss of yield resulting from drought stress during the stage of growth of grain corn (SC704) an experiment was performed in Aboureihan Campus of the University of Tehran, Iran, during 2007-2008. The experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomised completely block design (RCBD) with four replications. Experimental factors were drought stress as the main-plot [irrigation after 50 [without drought stress], 100 and 150 mm evaporation from pan class A, and fertilizer compounds as the sub-plot (100% phosphorus (b5), 50% super phosphate triple+ mycorrhizal fungus + Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (b2), mycorrhizal fungus + Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (b1), 50% super phosphate triple + Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (b3), and 50% super phosphate triple + mycorrhizal fungus (b4)). Drought stress happened after seedling establishment. Result of variance analysis showed that drought stress significantly affected plant height, stem dry weight, stem diameter, ear height, kernel number per row, 300 kernel weight, ear weight, ear length, ear diameter, cob diameter, kernel depth, cob percentage and total yield traits. Also, there was not significantly difference between fertilizer treatment for number of Leaf per plant, stem diameter and ear height traits. All the assessed traits in b2 inoculated treatment showed of higher values than other treats under water deficit stress condition. Furthermore, the investigated traits of b5 treat under severe water deficit stress were significantly less pronounced than normal irrigation and low stressed conditions. The results showed that all measured traits in seed inoculums with b2 under the low drought stress stood higher than other treats. Using stepwise regression was performed for grain corn in all conditions and in high stress conditions four traits have been extracted, which describe most 90% of yield variations. These results have completely coincidence with simple correlation analysis.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mycorrhiza fungies
  • Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria
  • Super phosphate triple
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