عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
In order to perform each component of agricultural practices, its plan should be rationalized economically and technically. In a study for recognition patterns of energy inputs and outputs in saffron fields of Southern Khorasan, Iran, during a five years exploitation period, two questionnaires were prepared, one for the first cultivation year, and another for crop management and harvest during four subsequent years. In each questionnaire some questions were included to obtain direct and indirect inputs and outputs of energy flows in saffron fields. About seventy questionnaires were filled by direct interview with farmers. Results showed the highest energy input in the first year is supplied by farm manure which approach to 91.16% of total used energy. During four next years, however, nitrogen fertilizer (mainly as urea form) was the main energy input with 37.67% of total used energy. The daughter corms and crop shoots consist the main sources of energy outputs, as energy efficiency was 41% for a five exploitation period, which is similar to some annual crops such as tomato and lettuce in USA. Although energy efficiency of saffron production is very low in Southern Khorasan, but most of saffron fields is cultivated ecologically, with low external inputs, and this crop play an important role in rural livelihood, because of its high economic efficiency and employment than other local cultivated crops.