تأثیر تراکم و آرایش کاشت ذرت دانه‌ای (Zea mays L.) بر میزان مصرف علفکشها

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی



به منظور بررسی اثرات تراکم و آرایش کاشت ذرت دانه‌ای در کاهش مصرف علف‌کش‌ها آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1386 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی بخش تحقیقات علف‌های‌هرز موسسه گیاهپزشکی کشور، واقع در ورامین به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار به اجرا درآمد. الگوی کاشت ذرت با چهار سطح تک‌ردیفه با تراکم معمول و دو ردیفه زیگزاگ با تراکم‌های معمول، 25% و 50% بیشتر از تراکم معمول به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و مصرف علف‌کش نیز با پنج سطح مخلوط آترازین به میزان 1 کیلوگرم در هکتار و ارادیکان به میزان 4، 5 و 6 لیتر در هکتار، مخلوط آترازین به میزان 1 کیلوگرم در هکتار و آلاکلر به میزان 5 لیتر در هکتار، ارادیکان به میزان 6 لیتر در هکتار به صورت پیش‌کاشت و به عنوان فاکتور فرعی اعمال گردید. کرتهای شاهد شامل شاهد بدون علفهرز و شاهد با علفهرز بود. تغییر الگوی کاشت ذرت از تک ردیفه با تراکم معمول به دو ردیفه زیگزاگ با تراکمهای 25% و 50% بیشتر از تراکم معمول موجب افزایش معنیدار عملکرد دانه ذرت شد. به غیر از تیمار شاهد با علفهرز عملکرد دانه سایر تیمارهای علف‌کشی اختلاف معنیداری با عملکرد دانه تیمار شاهد بدون علفهرز نداشت. در نتیجه میتوان از مقادیر کاهش یافته علفکشها استفاده نمود و در نتیجه میزان مصرف علفکشها را کاهش داد. افزایش عملکرد دانه نتیجه تأثیر معنیدار مصرف علفکش بر تعداد ردیف دانه در بلال، وزن صد دانه و قطر بلال بود.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the possibility of reducing herbicide application in corn (Zea mays L.) by using density and planting pattern

نویسندگان [English]

  • Neda S. Monfared
  • Iraj Alahdadi
  • Mohammad Ali Baghestani
  • Hamid Iran nejad
  • Eskandar Zand
  • Atefeh Razzazi
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effects of corn density and planting pattern for reducing herbicide application, an experiment was carried out in 2007 at Varamin Research Station of Plant Protection Research Institute. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split plot arrangement with 4 replications. Experimental factors consisted of planting patterns at 4 levels included one row planting on each ridge with recommended density, two rows planting on each ridge with recommended density, 0.25 and 0.5 times more than recommended density in main plots and herbicide at 5 levels including Atrazin 1 L/ha plus EPTC 4, 5 and 6 L/ha, Atrazin 1 L/ha plus Allachlor 5 L/ha, EPTC 6 L/ha in subplots. Weed-free and weedy controls were added to treatments. Results indicated that altering planting pattern to two rows planting with 0.25 and 0.5 times more than recommended density significantly increased grain yield. Grain yield of herbicide treatments except weedy control had no significant difference in comparison with weed-free control. Therefore by using reduced rates of herbicides it is possible to decrease herbicide application. Herbicide application had significant effect on number of kernel rows per ear, 100-grain weight and ear diameter and grain yield was increased.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Planting method
  • Tankmix herbicides
  • Weeds interference
  • Competitive ability
Abdullah, G.H., Ahmad Khan, I., Munir. M., 2007. Effect of planting methods and herbicides on yield and yield
components of maize. Pak J. Weed Sci. Res. 13, 39-48.
2- Ali, R., Khalil, S.K., Raza, S.M., Khan. H., 2003. Effect of herbicides and row spacing on maize (Zea mays L.).
Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res. 9, 171-178.
3- Ballare, C.L., Casal. J.J., 2000. Light signals perceived by crop and weed plants. Field Crop Res. 67, 149-160.
4- Bauman, D.T., 2001. Competitive suppression of weeds in a leek-celery intercropping system. Ph.D. Thesis.
Wageningen Agricultural University. Netherlands.
5- Blackshaw, R.E., O’Donovan, J.T., Harker, K.N., Clayton, G.W., Stougaard. R.N., 2006. Reduced herbicide doses
in field crops: A review. Weed Biology and Management. 6, 10-17.
6- Buhler, D.D., 2002. Challenges and opportunities for integrated weed management. Weed Sci. 50, 273-280.
7- Cathcard, R.J., Swanton. C.J., 2004. Nitrogen management will influence threshold values of green foxtail
(Setaria viridis) competition effects on corn growth and development. Weed Sci. 51, 975-986.
8- Caton, B.P., Mortimer, A.M., Foin, T.C., Hill, J.I., Gibson, K.D., Fischer. J., 2001. Weed shoot morphology effects
on competiveness for light and direct-seeded rice. Weed Res. 41, 155-163.
9- Eskandari, A., 2007. Effects of different planting pattern on decline of herbicides consumption and weeds
population. MSc. Thesis. Fac. Agric. Tehran Univ., Iran. (In Persian with English summary).
10- Finck, C., 2003. Twin rows take to field. Farm J. (Midwest/Central edition). Philadelphia. 127, 8-15.
11- Gardiol, J.M., Serio, L.A., Della Maggiora A.I., 2003. Modelling evapotranspiration of corn under different plant
densities. Journal of Hydrology. 271, 188-196.
12- George, A., 2002. Principles of crop production. Prentice-Hall of India. New dehli-110 001.
13- Gokmen, S., Sencar, O., Sakin, M.A., 2001. Response of popcorn (Zea mays everata) to nitrogen rates and plant
densities. Turk. J. Agric. 25, 15-23.
14- Gozebenli, H., Kilinc, M., Sener, O., Konuskan, O., 2004. Effects of single and twin row planting on yield and
yield component in maize. Asian Journal of Plant Science. 3, 203-206.
15- Harbur, M.M., Owen. M.D.K., 2004. Light and growth rate effects on crop and weed responses to nitrogen. Weed
Sci. 52, 578-583.
16- Hashemi, A.M., Herbert, S.J., Putnam, D.H., 2005. Yield response of corn to crowding stress. Agron J. 97, 839-
17- Katsvairo, T.W., Cox, W.J., Glos, M., Van Es, H.M., Otis. D., 2002. Variable rate N management in corn. What’s
Cropping Up. 12, 1–5.
18- Khan, M.A., 2002. Efficacy of different herbicides on the yield and yield components of maize. MSc. Thesis.
Weed Science Deptt. NWFP Agric Univ. Peshawar.
19- Konuskan, O., 2000. Effect of plant density on yield and yield-related characters of some maize hybrids grown in
Hatay conditions as second crop. MSc. Thesis. Science Institute, M. K. U.
20- Lemerle, D., Gill, G.S., Murphy, C.E., Walker, S.R., Cousens, R.D., Mokhtari. S., 2001. Genetic improvement and
agronomy for enhanced wheat competitiveness with weeds. Aust. J. Agric Res. 52, 527-548.
21- Maddonni, G. A., Otegui, M.E., Cirilo. A.G., 2001. Plant population density, row spacing and hybrid effects on
maize canopy architecture and light attenuation. Field Crops Res. 71, 183-193.
22- Mehrabi, A., 2008. Controlling corn weeds by changing density and planting pattern. MSc. Thesis. Fac. Agric.
Tehran Univ., Iran. (In Persian with English summary).
23- Mohler, C.L., 2001. Enhancing the competitive ability of crops. In: Liebman, M., Mohler, C.L., Staver, C.P. (Eds.),
Ecological Management of Agricultural Weeds. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Pp, 269-322.
تأثیر تراکم و آرایش کاشت ذرت دانه ای... 17
24- National Agricultural Statistics Service [NASS]. 2002. Agricultural Chemical Usage. Washington, DC:
Agricultural Statistics Board and USDA.
25- Norris, R.F., Elmore, C.L., Rejmanek, M., Akey. W.C., 2001. Spatial arrangement, demsity and competition
between barnyardgrass and tomato: I. Crop growth and yield. Weed Sci. 49, 61-68.
26- Norwood, C.A., 2001. Dryland corn in western kansas: Effect of hybrid maturity, planting date and plant
population. Agron J. 93, 540-547.
27- Roggenkamp, G.J., Mason, S.C., Martin. A.R., 2000. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and green foxtail (Setaria
viridis) response to corn (Zea mays) hybrid. Weed Tech. 14, 304-311.
28- Rajcan, I., Swanton. C.J., 2001. Understanding maize-weed competition: resource competition, light quality and
the whole plant. Field Crop Res. 71, 139-150.
29- Razzazi, A., 2009. Application of Density, Varying Planting Patterns and Herbicides in Integrated Weed
Management of Corn (Zea mays L.). MSc. Thesis. Fac. Agric. Isfahan University Of Technology. (In Persian with
English summary).
30- Shapiro, C.A., Wortmann. C.S., 2006. Corn response to nitrogen rate, row spacing and plant density in eastern
Nebraska. Agron J. 98, 529-535.
31- Stewart, G., 2000. Twin row corn. Retrieved January 10, 2008, from http://www.ontariocorn.org.
32- Tingle, C.H.,. Steele, G.L, Chandler. J.M., 2003. Competition and control of smellmelon (Cucumis melo var.
dudaim Naud) in cotton. Weed Sci. 51, 586-591.
33- Weiner, J., Griepentorg, H.W., Kristensen. L., 2001. Suppression of weed by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum)
increase with crop density and spatial uniformity. J. Appl Eco. 38, 784-790.
34- Williams, M.M., Masiunas. J.B., 2006. Functional relationships between giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)
interference and sweet corn yield and ear traits. Weed Sci. 54, 948-953.