تأثیر نظامهای زراعی با نهاده های مختلف بر تنوع، ترکیب و تراکم علف‌های‌هرز در ذرت

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

بمنظور بررسی تأثیر نظامهای زراعی با نهاده های مختلف بر تنوع، ترکیب و تراکم علف‌های‌هرز در ذرت (Zea mays L.) آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 88-1387 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل سه نظام زراعی کم نهاده، متوسط نهاده و پرنهاده بودند. نظام کم نهاده با 30 تن کود دامی و نظام کم نهاده با 30 تن کمپوست، بدون عملیات آماده سازی زمین و وجین دستی، نظام متوسط نهاده شامل 15 تن در هکتار کمپوست، 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره، دو مرتبه عملیات آماده سازی زمین و علفکش توفوردی (در مرحله پنج برگی ذرت، به میزان 5/1 لیتر در هکتار) و یک مرتبه وجین دستی و نظام پرنهاده شامل 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره، چهار مرتبه عملیات آماده سازی زمین و پاراکوات (بعد از کاشت، به میزان 2 لیتر در هکتار) و توفوردی (در مرحله پنج برگی ذرت، به میزان 5/1 لیتر در هکتار) بودند کود دامی پوسیده و کمپوست در زمان کاشت و کود شیمیایی 25 روز پس از کاشت (اوره به میزان 150 و 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار به ترتیب برای نظامهای متوسط نهاده و پرنهاده) به خاک افزوده شد. نمونه برداری از جمعیت علف‌های‌هرز در سه مرحله ابتدا، وسط و انتهای فصل رشد انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در بین تیمارهای مختلف مدیریت نظام زراعی، تاجریزی سیاه (Solanum nigrum) با دامنه 00/75-09/9 درصد بیشترین فراوانی نسبی را نسبت به سایر گونه های علف هرز داشت. نظام کم نهاده بر پایه کود دامی بیشترین تعداد گونه علف هرز را به خود اختصاص داد. اثر مدیریت نظامهای زراعی بر وزن خشک و شاخصهای تنوع علف‌های‌هرز معنی دار بود. بیشترین و کمترین وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز به ترتیب در نظام کم نهاده بر پایه کود دامی و نظام پرنهاده مشاهده شد. در مرحله اول، دوم و سوم نمونه برداری، بیشترین شاخص تنوع مارگالف در نظام کم نهاده بر پایه کود دامی (به ترتیب با 3/5، 4/5 و 3/3) و کمترین میزان آن در نظام پرنهاده (به ترتیب با 8/0، 3/2 و 6/2) به‌دست آمد. بیشترین میزان شاخص تنوع شانون در مرحله اول، دوم و سوم نمونه برداری در نظام کم نهاده بر پایه کود دامی (بترتیب با 5/0، 7/0 و 6/0) و کمترین آن در نظام پرنهاده (به ترتیب با 1/0، 4/0 و 3/0) حاصل شد. دلیل کاهش تعداد و وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز در نظام پرنهاده در مقایسه با سایر نظامها بدلیل کنترل شیمیایی آنها در طی فصل رشد و اعمال سیستمهای خاکورزی فشرده و تراکم بالای ذرت بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different input management on weed composition, diversity and density of corn field

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Koocheki
  • Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of input intensity on species diversity, composition and density of weeds in corn (Zea mays L.), an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during the year 2009. Treatments included low input, medium input and high input systems. Low input received 30 tonha-1or 30 tonha-1 compost, zero tillage and hand weeding (twice). Medium input was based on 15 tonha-1 manure, 150 kgha-1 urea as chemical fertilizer, twice tillage operations and 2, 4-D (1.5 Lha-1, at five leaves emergence) as an herbicide and hand weeding (once). High input received 300 kgha-1 urea, four tillage operations and Paraquat (2 Lha-1, after planting) and 2, 4-D (1.5 Lha-1, at five leaves emergence). Manure and compost were applied in the planting time. Weed samplings were done in three stages (early, mid and late growing season). Results indicated that the highest and the lowest weed species diversity and density were observed in low input based on manure and high input systems, respectively. The highest range of weed relative density was obtained for black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) with 9.09-75.00%. The highest number of species was observed in low input based on manure. Also, management practices affected weed dry matter and diversity indices. The highest and the lowest amounts of weed dry matter were observed in low input based on manure and high input systems, respectively. In the first, second and the third stages of sampling, the maximum and the minimum amounts of Margalef index were observed in low input based on manure (with 5.3, 5.4 and 3.3, respectively) and high input systems (with 0.8, 2.3 and 2.6, respectively). In the first, second and the third stages of sampling, the highest and the lowest values of Shannon index were observed in low input based on manure (with 0.6, 0.7 and 0.5 respectively) and high input (with 0.1, 0.4 and 0.3 respectively) systems. Weed chemical control, intensive tillage operation and high corn density reduced weed number and dry matter in high input only.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Management practice
  • Margalef index
  • Shannon index
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