عنوان مقاله [English]
Common millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) belonging to the family Gramineae is a warm season grass with a growing season of 60–100 days. It is specially adapted to hot summers in tropics and high altitudes, where the growing season is short and the soil is poor in fertility. Among grain crops, the common millet has the lowest water requirement; it grows on any kind of soil except coarse sand. Therefore, in order to maximize yield and Yield components of commen millet, the appropriate management of this product is necessary. Organic matter is one of the most important constituents of soil that have significant effects on the availability of the elements and improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of municipal waste compost and orange waste compost on vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of commen millet.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was designed as factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications under field conditions in gonabad during growing season of 2018. Treatments were three levels of municipal waste compost (0, 7.5 and 15 t/ha) and three levels of orange waste compost (0, 7.5 and 15 t/ha). The measured indices including vegetative characteristics (plant height (cm), number of tillers per plant, plant dry weight (gr), number of leaves, panicle height (cm)) and reproductive characteristics (seed yield per plant (gr), 1000-seed weight (gr), seed yield, biological yield (kg.ha-1) and harvest index). Finally, the experimental data were statistically analyzed using SAS program ver. 9.1 and comparison of means was performed by LSD test at 5% probability level
Results and Discussion
The results showed that with increasing use of municipal waste compost as well as orange compost in soil, plant height, dry weight and grain yield and harvest index increased. The highest amount of municipal waste compost (15 t/ha) and orange waste compost (15 t/ha) increased the plant height by 15.8 and 11.8 percent, respectively, compared to control. The reason for the increase in plant height due to the use of organic materials is due to the improvement of the chemical and physical properties of the soil, the increase in the storage capacity of nutrients and the preparation of the ground bed for better root growth in the soil. The maximum dry weight plant was obtained in the treatment of municipal waste compost (15 t/ha) and orange waste compost (15 t/ha). The nitrogen present in organic fertilizers enhances vegetative growth, and the high potassium in these fertilizers, in addition to accelerating cell division and directly affecting vegetative growth, due to its role in the production of carbohydrates and proteins and the concentration of cell sap, increases dry weight of the plant. The highest seed yield was observed at the level of 15 tons per hectare of municipal waste compost with a 60.2% increase compared to the control and at the level of 15 tons per hectare of orange waste compost with an increase of 37.4% compared to the zero level. Also, the simple effect of municipal waste compost and orange waste and the interaction of two treatments on grain weight per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield and harvest idex were significant, The highest seed weight per plant was obtained from the highest levels of municipal waste compost and orange waste (15 t/ha + 15 t/ha). The highest 1000-seed weight and biological yield were observed in the treatment of municipal waste compost (15 t/ha) and orange waste compost (15 t/ha). Also, the highest harvest index was related to the treatment of municipal waste compost (15 t/ha) and orange waste compost (7.5 t/ha). Probably, the availability of more nutrients for the plant has led to an increase in the production of photosynthetic materials for the seeds and as a result, an increase in their weight.
The results of this study showed that municipal waste compost and orange waste compost had significant effect on yield and growth characteristics of commen millet. Thus, results showed that municipal waste compost (15 t/ha) and orange waste compost (15 t/ha) had strong impact on yield and growth characteristics of commen millet under field conditions.