کاربرد قارچ میکوریز (Rhizophagus intraradices) و کود نیتروژنه در رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی نعناع‌فلفلی (Mentha piperita L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه مراغه

2 دانشجوی دکتری اگروتکنولوژی-اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه

3 دانشجوی دکتری اگروتکنولوژی-اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه و گروه علوم کشاورزی،

چکیده

آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت اسپلیت پلات با 36 تیمار و سه تکرار در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه در سال زراعی 1398 اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل سطوح مختلف آبیاری در سه سطح: آبیاری نرمال، تنش ملایم و تنش شدید بود. همچنین فاکتور فرعی منابع مختلف کودی را در شش سطح: عدم مصرف کود (شاهد)، 100 درصد کود نیتروژنه، قارچ میکوریز (Rhizophagus intraradice)، 75 درصد کود نیتروژنه+ میکوریز، 50 درصد کود نیتروژنه+ میکوریز و 25 درصد کود نیتروژنه+ میکوریز شامل می‌شد و فاکتور فرعی فرعی هم شامل زمان برداشت در دو چین بود. نتایج نشان داد اثر متقابل چین×کود بر صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد گره، تعداد شاخه جانبی در بوته و عملکرد اسانس معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین ارتفاع بوته، شاخص کلروفیل و عملکرد ماده خشک به‌ترتیب در آبیاری نرمال با کاربرد 75 درصد کود نیتروژنه+ میکوریز و کمترین مقادیر این صفات در تیمار تنش آبی شدید بدون مصرف کود بدست آمد. بیشترین (4/2 درصد) و کمترین درصد اسانس (2/1 درصد) به‌ترتیب در تیمارهای تنش آبی ملایم با کاربرد 75 درصد کود نیتروژنه+ میکوریز و تنش آبی شدید بدون مصرف کود حاصل شد. بر اساس آنالیز شیمیایی اسانس، منتول، منتون، 1و8 سینئول و منتوفروان ترکیبات غالب اسانس بودند. بیشترین میزان منتول در تنش آبی ملایم با کاربرد 75 درصد کود نیتروژنه+ میکوریز بدست آمد. با توجه به نتایج، کاربرد تلفیقی 75 درصد کود نیتروژنه+ میکوریز در شرایط تنش آبی ملایم و در چین اول را می‌توان به عنوان تیمار برتر معرفی کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus intraradices) and nitrogen fertilizer under different irrigation regimes on quantity and quality characteristics of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • abdollah javanmard 1
  • ali ostadi 2
  • Mostafa Amani machiani 3
1 department of plant production and genetics
2 Ph.D. student of Agrotechnology – Crop Ecology, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh.
3 Ph.D. student of Agrotechnology – Crop Ecology, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh. Department of Agricultural Science, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction

Application of bio-fertilizers as one of the most important and sustainable strategies for soil fertility management and plant nutrition, Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), as bio-fertilizer, improve plant nutrients and water uptake and enhance plant resistance to stress conditions leading to improving plant growth and productivity. The objectives were evaluating the effect of different fertilizer sources (chemical fertilizer and AMF as biofertilizer) and harvesting time on the quantity and quality characteristics of peppermint under drought stress conditions.

Materials and methods

A field experiment study was carried out as split split plot design based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 36 treatments and three replications at the faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, The first factor was three irrigation levels included irrigation after depletion of 30% available water as control, depletion of 50% of available water as mild stress and depletion of 70% available water as severe stress. The sub factor was different fertilizer sources including (C: control, NF: 100% nitrogen fertilizer, AMF: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus intraradices), 75% NF+ AMF, 50% NF+ AMF and 25% NF+ AMF), and also the third factor was harvesting time . In AM fungi treatments, 80 g of the soil containing mycorrhizal fungi hyphae and the remains of the root and spores was added to soil in planting times. The aerial parts of peppermint were harvested at 50% of flowering stage on the first harvest and the second harvest.

Results and Discussion

The results showed that plant height, number of nods per plant, number of leaves per plant, number of lateral branches per plant, spad index, dry matter yield, essential oil content and yield was significantly affected by interaction of fertilizer sources× irrigation levels, harvesting time, harvesting time× irrigation levels. The highest and lowest of morphological characteristics, leaf greenness, dry matter yield and essential oil yield of peppermint was achieved in non-stress conditions with application of 75% nitrogen fertilizer+ AMF and sever water stress without fertilization, respectively. The maximum (2.4%) and minimum (1.2%) of essential oil content was observed in mild water stress fertilized with 75% nitrogen fertilizer+ AMF and sever water stress without fertilization, respectively. Based in the essential oil chemical analysis, the main essential oil compounds were menthol, menthone, 1,8 cineol and menthofuran. The highest menthol and menthone content was recorded in the mild water stress fertilized with 75% nitrogen fertilizer+ AMF and non-stress conditions fertilized with 25% nitrogen fertilizer+ AMF. By comparison between two harvesting time, the morphological characteristics, dry matter yield, essential oil content and yield in first harvest was higher than second harvest due to longer growth period and better growth conditions in first harvest compared with second one.

Conclusions

The results demonstrated that the plant height, number of nods per plant, number of leaves per plant, number of lateral branches per plant, SPAD index, dry matter yield and essential oil yield decreased significantly with increasing stress level. In contrast, application of AMF reduced the adverse effects of water stress, so that in severe water stress condition (irrigation after depletion of 70% available water), individual and integrative application of AMF with nitrogen fertilizer increased the mentioned traits, when compared with control. In addition, the mentioned traits in the first harvest increased by 127.8, 194.6, 159.8, 147.7, 17.7 and 37.9% in comparison with second harvest. Also, the essential oil content of peppermint enhanced with increasing water stress to the mild stress. So that, the essential oil content in mild stress increased by 11.4 and 39.7% respectively, when compared with non-stress and severe stress. The highest essential oil yield was achieved in first harvest with integrative application of 75% NF+ AMF. Also, the major essential oil compounds of peppermint (menthol) was recorded in mild stress integrated with 75% nitrogen fertilizer+ AMF. Generally, considering that the economic purpose of cultivating of medicinal plants is extracting the maximum content of secondary metabolites, and since the productivity of peppermint essential oil increased significantly by integrative application of 75% nitrogen fertilizer+ mycorrhiza in mild stress, so it can be suggested as a superior treatment

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bio-fertilizer
  • Essential oil yield
  • Menthol
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Water deficit

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 09 شهریور 1400
  • تاریخ دریافت: 18 فروردین 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 24 مرداد 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 09 شهریور 1400