بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف ورمی‌کمپوست و سولفات مس بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آموزشی علوم باغبانی و مرکز پژوهشی گیاهان ویژه منطقه دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران.

2 گروه علوم باغبانی، گرایش فیزیولوژی گیاهان دارویی، ادویه‌ای و عطری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه گیاهپزشکی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر ورمی‌کمپوست و سولفات مس بر برخی صفات رویشی و زایشی گیاه ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) پژوهشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی، در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه بیرجند در سال زراعی96 - 1395 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل ورمی‌کمپوست در سه سطح (صفر، 5 و 10 تن در هکتار) و سولفات مس در سه سطح (صفر، 3 و 6 در هزار) با سه تکرار بودند. نتایج نشان داد، تیمارهای مورد بررسی تأثیر معنی‌داری بر تعدادشاخه جانبی، وزن خشک بوته، تعداد برگ در بوته، طول شاخه جانبی، تعداد دانه در بوته، وزن هزار دانه، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک داشت، به‌طوری‌که بیشترین تعدادشاخه جانبی (33/17)، وزن خشک بوته (83/14 گرم در مترمربع)، تعداد برگ در بوته (167)، طول شاخه جانبی (83/26 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد دانه در بوته (3/3854)، وزن هزار دانه (80/1 گرم)، عملکرد دانه (3350 کیلوگرم در مترمربع) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (3/20968 کیلوگرم در مترمربع) ریحان در تیمار پنج تن در هکتار ورمی‌کمپوست و شش در هزار سولفات مس حاصل شد و برتری آن نسبت به شاهد به‌ترتیب 67، 51، 16، 43، 79، 26، 87 و 26 درصد بود. شاخص برداشت در تیمار پنج تن در هکتار ورمی‌کمپوست و سه در هزار سولفات مس با 01/13 در بیشترین مقدار خود بود. به‌طور کلی، نتایج بیانگر تأثیر مثبت کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای شیمیایی و آلی ذکر شده بر خصوصیات کمّی و عملکرد گیاه ریحان بود و با توجه به نتایج، می‌توان تیمار شش در هزار سولفات مس و پنج تن در هکتار ورمی‌کمپوست را به‌عنوان بهترین تیمار برای افزایش عملکرد این گیاه توصیه کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Levels of Vermicompost and Copper Sulfate on Morphological Characteristics, Yield, and Yield Components of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad hossein Aminifard 1
  • Mahboobeh Askarian 2
  • Mahdi Khayat 1
  • Mehdi jahani 3
1 Department of Horticultural Science and Special Plants Regional Research Center, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran.
2 Masters Student Horticultural Science (Medicnal plants), College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of plant protection, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is an herbaceous medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family with a wide range of applications in the culinary, cosmetic, food, perfumery, and medical industries. The presence of more than 200 chemicals, including flavonoids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, and aromatic compounds in basil oil, have been identified. The main components of its oil are eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, estragole, and anethole, varying by chemotype. Basil is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran, which is widely used in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, sanitary, and food industries, and it is considered an anti-fluff and appetizer in traditional medicine. Therefore, to maximize yield and increase the length of the basil production period, the appropriate management of this product is necessary. Among these, the use of suitable nutritional elements is one of the useful ways to improve the performance of this plant. The centers of origin of basil are the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and South America. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of vermicompost and copper sulfate and their interaction on vegetative, reproductive growth, and yield of basil's medicinal plant.
Materials and Methods
To investigate the effect of vermicompost and copper sulfate on some vegetative and reproductive characteristics of the basil plant, an experiment was carried out as factorial based on a randomized completely block design with three replications in the research farm of Birjand University, Iran, during the growing season 2017-2018. Treatments were three levels of vermicompost (0, 5, and 10 t.ha-1) and three levels of copper sulfate (0, 3, and 6 per thousand) with three replications. The measured indices include vegetative characteristics (plant height, lateral number, plant fresh and dry weight, leaf fresh and dry weight, number of leaves and node per plant, lateral branch length internally spaced, and diameter stem) and reproductive characteristics (inflorescence number and length, number of plant seeds, the weight of one thousand seeds, harvest index, grain performance, and biological function).
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the studied treatments had a significant effect on the number of lateral branches, plant dry weight, number of leaves per plant, lateral branch length, number of seeds, 1000-seed weight, harvest index, grain yield, and biological yield so that the highest number of lateral branches (17.33), Plant dry weight (14.83 g.m-2), Number of leaves per plant (167), Lateral branch length (26.83 cm), Number of seeds (3854.3), 1000-seed weight (1.80 g), Seed yield (3350 kg.m-2) and biological yield (20968.3 kg.m-2) basil was obtained in the treatment of 5 t.h-1 of vermicompost and 6 per thousand of copper sulfate and its advantage over the control was 67, 51, 16, 43, 79, 26, 87 and 26%, respectively. Harvest index in the treatment of 5 t.h-1 of vermicompost and 3 per thousand of copper sulfate with 13.01 in its maximum amount.
Conclusion
In general, the results indicated a positive and incremental effect of the combined application of the chemical and organic fertilizers on the yield of the basil plant, and according to the results, treatment with 6 per thousand copper sulfate and five t.ha-1 vermicompost was recommended as the best treatment for increasing yield. But always in agricultural products, especially in the production of basil as a medicinal and vegetable plant, the best results in terms of crop production and health, as well as essential oils and medicinal compounds, were related to the combined treatments of organic and chemical fertilizers, because these treatments are relative compared to organic treatments alone, they increased the yield and on the other hand, compared to chemical fertilizers, they had a healthier product and more medicinal compounds.
Acknowledgments: Authors are grateful to Ebrahim Ebrahimabadi for their help with the field experiments.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foliar spraying
  • harvest index
  • one thousand seeds
  • organic fertilizer
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