اثر کاربرد کودهای دامی، بیولوژیک و شیمیایی بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی آلوئه‌ورا (Aloe barbadensis Miller.) در استان بوشهر

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان بوشهر، ایران

چکیده

آلوئه‌ورا یا صبر زرد (Aloe vera L. Syn: A.barbadensis Miller.) متعلق به تیره لاله (یا آلوئه) و جزو گیاهان گوشتی، چندساله، و همیشه سبز می‌باشد. مدیریت حاصلخیزی در مزرعه یکی از استراتژی‌هایی است که می‌تواند عملکرد آلوئه‌ورا را افزایش دهد، امّا متأسفانه اطلاعات در مورد مدیریت زراعی این محصول بسیار اندک است. به این منظور آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‏های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 92-1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی استان بوشهر به اجرا درآمد. عامل اصلی شامل کاربرد و عدم کاربرد کود گوسفندی (20 تن در هکتار) و عامل فرعی شامل کودهای بیولوژیک و شیمیایی در پنج سطح (1- کود شیمیایی (80 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرفسفات تریپل و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره)، 2- کود بیولوژیک میکوریزا (خاک حاوی قارچ‌هایی از گونه موسه‌آ)، 3- کود بیولوژیک نیتراژین شامل باکتری‌های Azotobacter spp.، Pseudomonas spp. و Azospirillum spp.، 4- ترکیب دو کود بیولوژیک میکوریزا و نیتراژین و 5- شاهد (بدون مصرف کود) بودند. وزن تر بوته، طول و عرض و ضخامت و تعداد برگ، وزن خشک بوته و عملکرد نهایی اندازه­گیری و محاسبه شدند. نتایج نشان داد برهم‌کنش بین کود دامی و کودهای بیولوژیک و شیمیایی بر تمامی صفات اندازه­گیری شده معنی‌دار بود. کاربرد کود دامی در مقایسه با عدم کاربرد آن باعث بهبود شاخص‏های رشد گردید. تلفیق کود دامی با کود شیمیایی بیشترین تأثیر را بر رشد آلوئه‌ورا داشت، به‌طوری‌که این تیمار دارای بیشترین وزن خشک و تر بوته به‌ترتیب با 10/78 و 18/3107 گرم و همچنین بیشترین عملکرد نهایی با 04/36 تن در هکتار بود.در نهایت، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که برای تولید عملکرد بالا و با کیفیت آلوئه‌ورا می‏توان از تلفیق کودهای دامی و بیولوژیک به‌جای کودهای شیمیایی سود برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Manure and Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield and some Morphological Characteristics of Aloe vera (Aloe burbadensis Miller.) in Bushehr Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Farrokhi 1
  • Ali Reza Koocheki 1
  • Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati 1
  • Rahim Khademi 2
1 Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2 Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Bushehr province, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Aloe vera is a permanent, evergreen species with special industrial and pharmaceutical applications. However, information about its nutrition management is scarce. Plants absorb nutrients through complex interactions in the rhizosphere between roots, symbiotic or non-symbiotic microorganisms and soil fauna. Inoculations of soil microorganisms (in the form of biofertilizers) to improve crop production and plant health were mainly undertaken for the group of bacteria known as PGPB (plant growth-promoting bacteria) or PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) and mycorrhizal fungi. To be effective, inoculated organisms must have soil conditions that are suitable for development, which can be improved by applying manure. Compared to the use of inorganic fertilizers, the application of organic manure in agriculture fields results in significant effects on microbial biomass, on the profile of existing species and, consequently, on the enzymes they circulate in the soil and its pool of organic matter. In this way, it interacts with the overall fertility of the environment. Different options of soil fertility management for increasing yield of aloe vera were studied in a field experiment.
Materials and Methods
A split plot experimentwas conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2012-2013 growing season in Agricultural Research Center of Bushehr province (29º16'0"N 51º31'0"E and 110 m above sea level). Seedlings were planted on May 4, 2012 with a distance of 0.7 m spacing on row with 1 m distance. The distance between Aloe vera rows was 1 m. The drip irrigation method was used for irrigation.  Main plot factor consisted of 0 and 20 ton.ha-1 sheep manure and five methods of soil fertility management were assigned to subplots including 1) chemical fertilizer (80 kg.ha-1 super phosphate+200 kg.ha-1 urea), 2) Mycorrhiza (using soil containing fungi from mosea), 3) biological fertilizer nitrogen (containing Azotobacter spp; Pseudomomas spp; and Azosprillium spp), 4) combination of Mycorrhiza and Nitrogen, and 5) no fertilizer (control). Monthly samplings were taken in 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 330 days after planting. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, leaf length, width and thickness and number of leaves per plant were measured. Harvestable leaves were considered as final yield.
Results and Discussion
The results indicated that interaction between manure and chemical or biological fertilizers was significant for all measured traits. Application of sheep manure was led to significantly higher growth and yield of aloe vera with better performance when manure was combined with chemical fertilizers. The highest number of leaves was obtained from integrated use of manure and chemical fertilizers with about 15 leaf per plant. While the lowest number of leaves was observed in control treatment. The interaction between treatments had a significant effect (p≤0.01) on leaf thickness. Plants treated with combination of chemical fertilizer and sheep manure had significant differences with other treatments, except with integrated use of biological fertilizers and manure. The highest fresh and dry weight of plant 3107.2 and 78.1 g plant-1, respectively and the highest final yield (36.04 tons.ha-1) was achieved with integrated use of manure and chemical fertilizers. The results also indicated that high aloe vera yields with great quality could be obtained with combined application of manure and biological fertilizers as an alternative for chemical fertilizers.
Conclusion
Producing medicinal plants under low input of chemical fertilizers is of great importance for human health, environment as well as production costs. Results of this experiment showed that application of manure with biofertilizers could be considered as a proper alternative to chemical fertilizers. Nutrition of aloe vera with this integrated management method will results to high yield and quality in addition to improving the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil.
Acknowledgment
We are grateful to Ebrahim Farrokhi and Kohzad Sartavi for their help with the field experiments, collecting field data and providing necessary advices to carry out this work.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Harvestable yield
  • Sheep manure
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Nitrogen
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