مدل‌سازی تأثیر کشت نشایی بر عملکرد و مصرف آب ذرت در شرایط محیطی گرگان

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

3 گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران.

4 دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران.

5 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، ایران.

چکیده

کشت نشایی محصولات زراعی یکی از روش­هایی است که برای بهبود مصرف آب و افزایش عملکرد معرفی شده است. از عوامل مؤثر بر موفقیت این روش می­توان به اندازه گیاهچه و تاریخ کاشت اشاره نمود. در پژوهش حاضر، شبیه‌سازی تأثیر کشت بذری و چهار اندازه گیاهچه شامل (13، 16، 19 و 22 سانتی­مترمربع در بوته سطح برگ( برای کشت نشایی ذرت (رقم سینگل کراس704) در چهار تاریخ کاشت 20 خرداد، 4 تیر،  23تیر و 5 مرداد در شرایط محیطی گرگان برای 16سال (2015-2000) با مدل SSM-iCrop2 انجام شد. در تاریخ کاشت­ 20 خرداد، کشت نشایی در مقایسه با کشت بذری بین 16 تا 26 روز زودرس­تر شد. امّا کشت نشایی تأثیری بر عملکرد و مقدار نیاز خالص آبیاری نداشت (متوسط عملکرد 1331 گرم در متر­مربع و متوسط نیاز خالص آبیاری 435 میلی­متر در هکتار). در تاریخ کاشت 4 تیر کشت نشایی در مقایسه با کشت بذری باعث 19 تا 33 روز زودرسی محصول شد (برداشت زودتر) و مانند تاریخ کاشت 20 خرداد تأثیری بر عملکرد و مقدار نیاز خالص آبیاری نداشت (متوسط عملکرد و نیاز آبی به‌ترتیب 1329 گرم در متر­مربع و 416 میلی­متر در هکتار). در تاریخ کاشت 23 تیر کشت نشایی با نشاهای بزرگ (سطح برگ 19 و 22 سانتی­مترمربع در بوته) توانستند دوره رشد خود را قبل از 1 آذر به اتمام برسانند (متوسط عملکرد 1273 گرم در متر­مربع و متوسط نیاز آبیاری 381 میلی­متر در هکتار). لازم به ذکر است در تاریخ کاشت 23 تیر، کشت بذری و کشت نشایی با گیاهچه کوچک (سطح برگ 13 و 16 سانتی­مترمربع در بوته) نتوانستند تا 1 آذر به مرحله رسیدگی کامل برسند و بنابراین، قابل توصیه نیستند. در تاریخ کاشت 5 مرداد همه انواع کشت با­توجه به اینکه دوره رشد آن­ها تا 1 آذر تکمیل نشد، قابل توصیه نیستند. همچنین از­نظر اقتصادی با­توجه به نتایج، نشاکاری سود بیشتری را حاصل نکرده و هزینه­های بیشتری را در بر داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modelling the Effect of Seedling Culture on Yield and Water Use of Maize under Gorgan Environmental Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • shiva taheri 1
  • afshin soltani 2
  • behnam kamkar 3
  • mohammad nazeri 4
  • ehsan shakeri 5
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Golestan, Iran.
2 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
3 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Golestan, Iran.
4 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Golestan, Iran.
5 Graduated from Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University. Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction[1]
Method include seedling size and planting date. Since field experiments are usually laborious and costly, the simulation models could be used as a useful tool for investigating such factors. Due to climate change affects the outputs of crop models, the crop growth simulation models should be widely evaluated with empirical data to ensure that simulation of crop growth under a different management strategy or future weather conditions is reliable.
 
Martials and Methods
 In the present study, the effect of direct-seeding and four seedling sizes (13, 16, 19 and 22 leaf area cm2plant-1 and at 200, 250, 300 and 350 °C cumulative temperature) for transplanting method at four planting dates (10 June, 25 June, 14 July, and 27 July) was simulated in Gorgan environmental conditions for 16 years (2000-2015) using SSM-iCrop2 model. In this simulation, it was supposed that the corn should be harvested on 22 November to provide sufficient time for cultivating the next crop. Also, the economic evaluation between the two methods of transplanting and direct-seeding was carried out using a questionnaire from farmers and experts in the field to evaluate the costs of these two methods
.
Results and Discussion
 The simulation results showed that at early planting date (10 June), in transplanting method, the crop matured earlier between 16 to 26 days compared to the direct-seeding, depending on seedling size. In addition, the average yield of 1331 g m-2 and average net irrigation requirement of 435 mm ha-1 were obtained. At this planting date, transplanting had no effect on the yield and net irrigation requirement. In the common sowing date (25 June), the crop matured earlier between 19 to 33 days (early harvest) in the transplanting method compared to direct-seeding, however, the planting method had no effect on the yield and net amount of irrigation. At this planting date, the average yield and water requirement were 1329 g m2 and 416 mm ha-1, respectively. In late planting date (14 July), transplanting with large seedlings (leaf area of 19 and 22 cm2 plant-1) were able to complete their growth period before 22 November. Average yield and irrigation requirement were 1273 g m-2 and 381 mm ha-1, respectively. It should be noted that in late planting date, direct-seeding and transplanting with small seedlings (leaf area of 13 and 16 cm2 plant-1) were not able to complete maturity to 22 November, therefore, this planting date is not recommended. At the last planting date (27 July), all types of cultivation are not recommended as crop growth period are not completed before 22 November.
 
Conclusion
 In general, it can be concluded that transplanting method would be only recommended for late planting date with using large transplants (leaf area of 19 and 22 cm2 plant-1). However, transplanting did not significantly decrease the amount of net irrigation requirement at any of the planting dates, and also had higher costs and lower profit.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultivation Method
  • Production
  • productivity
  • simulation
  • SSM-iCrop2
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