بررسی اثر کاربرد کود آلی و نیتروژن بر کیفیت علوفه رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare L.) و اسپرس (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) در شرایط کشت مخلوط

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، مازندران، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، مازندران، ایران

3 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد ، شهرکرد، ایران

4 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، مازندران، ایران

چکیده

کشت مخلوط گیاهان دارویی همراه با گیاهان علوفه­ای یک رویکرد برای بهبود سلامت دام است. در واقع، کشت مخلوط به‌دلیل عملکرد بهتر به‌دلیل جذب بیشتر منابع، کارایی بیشتر نسبت به سیستم­های تک‌کشتی مؤثرتر است. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر منابع کودی و الگوهای کشت مخلوط بر صفات کیفی علوفه گیاه اسپرس (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) و رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت­های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهرکرد در دو فصل زراعی 94-1393 و 95-1394 انجام گرفت. پنج منبع کودی ( 100 درصد دامی، 75 درصد دامی + 25 درصد شیمیایی، 50 درصد دامی + 50 درصد شیمیایی، 25 درصد دامی + 75 درصد شیمیایی و 100 درصد شیمیایی) به‌عنوان کرت­های اصلی و کشت خالص رازیانه (F)، کشت خالص اسپرس (S) و همچنین سه نسبت مخلوط این گیاه (75 درصد رازیانه + 25 درصد اسپرس، 50 درصد رازیانه + 50 درصد اسپرس و 25 درصد رازیانه + 75 درصد اسپرس) به‌عنوان کرت­های فرعی بود. صفات مورد مطالعه در این آزمایش درصد پروتئین و فیبر خام، کربوهیدرات محلول در آب، خاکستر، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، درصد دیواره سلولی و درصد دیواره سلولی عاری از همی‌سلولز و انرژی متابولیسمی بودند. نتایج نشان داد بالاترین درصد پروتئین خام در سال اول مربوط به تک‌کشتی رازیانه (6/20 درصد) و نسبت­های بالاتر کود شیمیایی (7/18 درصد)، و در سال دوم مربوط به کشت و کود تلفیقی به‌ترتیب با 3/23 و 4/23 درصد بود. بالاترین ماده خشک قابل هضم مربوط به تک‌کشتی اسپرس با دریافت کود تلفیقی با 1/87 درصد به‌دست آمد و نسبت به کشت خالص رازیانه 22 درصد افزایش در این سطح تیمار کودی داشت. درصد فیبر خام و دیواره سلولی عاری از همی‌سلولز در نسبت­های بالاتر اسپرس کاهش یافتند. انرژی متابولیسمی در سال اول تحت کود شیمیایی و در سال دوم تحت کود دامی، و همچنین درصد خاکستر کل تحت کود دامی و هر دو در الگوی تک‌کشتی رازیانه بالاتر بودند. بنابراین، ما سیستم کشت مخلوط 50 درصد رازیانه + 50 درصد اسپرس تحت منبع کودی 50 درصد کود دامی + 50 درصد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن را پیشنهاد می‏کنیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Organic and Nitrogen Fertilizers Application on Quality of Forage of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) and Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) under Intercropping System

نویسندگان [English]

  • Habibollah Yousefyan Ghahfarokhi 1
  • Mohammad Ali Esmaeili 2
  • Abdolrazagh Danesh Shahraki 3
  • Mahdi Ghajar Sepanlu 4
1 Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
2 Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
3 Department of Agronomy, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
4 Department of Soil Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Intercropping of medicinal plants with forages is an approach to improve livestock health. In fact, intercropping is more efficient than monocropping systems because of superior yield due to better absorption of resources. Forage with a high nutritive value can be produced using intercropping systems along with manure fertilizer, and more recovery nutrients can be observed in the multiple cropping systems than single cropping systems. Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) is an important forage legume, which has been cultivated for hundreds of years in many parts of the world, especially Asia, Europe, and North America. There is a renewed interest in sainfoin because of its use in animal diets and key nutritional properties such as high nutritive value and high forage palatability. The medicinal herbs are considered as natural products, with growth-promoting and antioxidant effects, and consequently, consumers may be using them for livestock feeds. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is an annual medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferaceae) family and is native to the Mediterranean area. As the quantity and quality of forage production and the importance of medicinal plants in nutrition, the goal of the study was to investigate the methods of intercropping systems on forage quality of sainfoin and fennel under cow manure and urea fertilizer treatments.
Materials and Methods
In order to investigate the effects of fertilizer sources and intercropping ratio, a split-plot experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Shahrekord University research farm during 2015 and 2016. Five fertilizer sources (chemical fertilizer, chemical + manure fertilizer (1: 1), (2:1), (1:2) and manure fertilizer) and sole cropping of fennel (F), and sole cropping of sainfoin (S), and three intercropping ratio (F: S 3:1, 1:1 and 1: 3) were also considered. The N fertilizer treatments and intercropping systems were arranged in main and sub-plots, respectively.Forage quality parameters include Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber (CF), Dry Matter Digestible (DMD), Water-Soluble Carbohydrate (WSC), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Ash (ASH), and Metabolism Energy (ME) were measured using standard procedures.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that forage quality traits of sainfoin and fennel were significantly affected by N fertilizer and mixed crop patterns. The highest crude protein was related to sole cropping of fennel and higher ratios of chemical fertilizer in the first year, and intercropping and higher ratios of manure in the second year. The highest dry matter digestibility has obtained for the monocropping of sainfoin with integrated fertilizer. Crude fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased in higher ratios of sainfoin. Metabolism energy was higher under chemical fertilizer in the first year and under manure in the second year, as well as the ash under manure, and both were higher in monocropping of fennel. Previous studies conducted a berseem clover and basil intercropping system and reported that all of the forage quality traits of berseem clover, including DMD, CP, WSC, NDF, ADF, and ASH were improved in the additive intercropping system as a legume–basil mixture. They demonstrated that interactions between intercropped plants played an important role in the quality improvement of the forage due to better light interception.
Conclussion
In general, our findings showed that N fertilizer sources and intercropping systems affected the forage quality of the fennel and sainfoin. We suggest 50 % fennel + 50 % sainfoin with 50 % manure + 50 % urea fertilizer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crude protein percentage
  • Acid detergent fiber
  • Dry matter digestible
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