اثر تیمارهای مدیریتی و گیاهان پوششی برجمعیت علف‌های هرز و عملکرد دو رقم گوجه‌فرنگی (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 اکولوژیک گروه اگروتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران.

2 گروه اگروتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

3 گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

4 رشته بوم‌شناسی زراعی گروه اگروتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

علفهای هرز یکی از عمده­ترین عوامل کاهنده در تولید گوجه فرنگی محسوب می­شوند. گیاهان پوششی از طریق چندین خصوصیت مانع جوانه­زنی و کاهش سبز شدن و استقرار علف­های هرز می­شوند. هدف از این مطالعه ارزیابی کنترل علف­های هرز با استفاده از گونه­های مختلف پوششی زمستانه در تولید گوجه فرنگی بود. این آزمایش به صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه صبوری واقع در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی در سال زراعی 97-1396 انجام شد. عامل اصلی شامل چهار گیاه پوششی زمستانه ]خلر (Lathyrus sativus)، ماشک گل خوشه­ای (Vicia villosa)، شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum) و چاودار (Secale cereale)[، آبیاری (خاک­ورزی بدون گیاه پوششی) و شاهد (خاک­ورزی بدون آبیاری پاییزه) و عامل فرعی دو رقم گوجه فرنگی (8320 و 6515 از شرکت فلات) بود. گیاهان پوششی زمستانه در بهار به خاک برگردانیده شدند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل تراکم نسبی، تراکم و وزن خشک علفهای هرز در واحد سطح (در سه مرحله شامل 30 روز پس کاشت، 50 روز پس از کاشت و پیش از برداشت) و تعداد و عملکرد میوه و شاخص بریکس گوجه فرنگی در سه چین بود. نتایج نشان داد که دامنه کنترل گونه­های علف­ هرز در بین گونه­های پوششی زمستانه مختلف بود. کمترین تراکم و وزن خشک علف­های هرز برای ماشک گل خوشه­ای و چاودار مشاهده شد و بیشترین میزان به شاهد اختصاص داشت. ماشک گل خوشه­ای و چاودار گونه­های آللوپاتیکی با کارایی بالاتری در کنترل علف­های هرز دو لپه در مقایسه با گونه­های تک لپه هستند. اثر ساده و متقابل گیاهان پوششی زمستانه و رقم بر تعداد میوه و عملکرد میوه و شاخص بریکس گوجه فرنگی معنی­دار بود. بالاترین عملکرد در چین­های اول، دوم و سوم در تیمار ماشک گل­خوشه­ای (به ترتیب با 98/5760، 2896 و 51/1563 گرم بر مترمربع) به دست آمد و کمترین میزان به شاهد (به ترتیب با 32/4156، 65/1742 و 90/600 گرم بر مترمربع) اختصاص داشت. عملکرد کل رقم 6515 نسبت به رقم 8320 برابر با 15 درصد بالاتر بود. بیشترین و کمترین تعداد میوه در چین­های اول، دوم و سوم به ترتیب برای تیمار ماشک گل­خوشه­ای (به ترتیب با 31/75، 87/37 و 38/22 میوه بر مترمربع) و شاهد (به ترتیب با 33/54، 78/22 و 85/8 میوه بر مترمربع) مشاهده شد. شاخص بریکس رقم 8320 بالاتر از رقم 6515 بود. به طور کلی جمعیت علف هرز یکساله، دو ساله و چند ساله تحت تأثیر گونه­های پوششی زمستانه قرار گرفتند. نتایج این مطالعه نشان می­دهد که گونه­های پوششی زمستانه می­تواند به طور مؤثری در مدیریت تلفیقی علف­های هرز برای کاهش آلودگی علف­های هرز در تولید گوجه فرنگی مدنظر قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Weed Management Treatments and Cover Crops as Winter Plating on Weed Population and Yield of Two Cultivars of Tomato

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bizhan Saboori 1
  • Surur Khorramdel 2
  • Alireza Koocheki 3
  • Hoda Latifi 4
1 Department of Agrotecnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
2 Department of Agrotecnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
3 Department of Agrotecnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
4 Department of Agrotecnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Weeds are one of the major reducing factors in tomato production. Cover crops have several features that can inhibit germination and decline emergence and establishment of weeds. The aim of this research was to investigate weed control by using winter cover crop species in production of tomato crops.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design at Sabouri Field, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center during 2017-2018. Four winter cover crops (WCC) [such as chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and rye (Secale cereale)], irrigation (tilled soil without WCC) and control (tilled soil without irrigation) were considered as main factor and sub plots were two tomato cultivars (8320 and 6515 from FALAT Co.). WCC were converted into mulches in spring. Studied criteria were relative density, density and dry weight of weeds per unit area and number (in three stages such as 30 days after planting time, 50 days after planting time and before planting time) and fruit yield and Brix index in three ripening stages.
Results and discussion
The results showed that species of weeds controlled varies widely between WCCs. The minimum density and dry weight of weeds were belonged to hairy vetch and rye and the maximum was for control. Hairy vetch and rye are allelopathic with better efficacy against annual dicots than grasses. The simple and interaction effect of WCC and cultivar were significant on fruit number, fruit yield and Brix index. The highest and the lowest yield for the first, second and third ripening stages were observed in hairy vetch and control, respectively. Total yield for 6515 cultivar was 15 percent higher than 8320 cultivar. The highest and the lowest fruit numbers for the first, second and third ripening stages were related to hairy vetch (with 75.31, 37.78 and 22.3 fruits.m-2) and control (with 54.33, 22.78 and 8.85 fruits.m-2), respectively. Brix index for 8320 cultivar was higher than 6515 cultivar.
Conclusion
In general, annual, biennial or perennial weeds are suppressed by WCCs. This research indicate that WCCs could be used successfully in integrated weed management to decline weed infestation in tomato production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Allelopathy
  • Brix index
  • Weed dry weight
  • Weed establishment
  • weed management
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