بررسی اثر باکتری‌های آزادزی تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن و حل‌کننده فسفر و پتاسیم بر شاخص‌های رشدی دو توده ماش (Vigna radiata L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفر، پتاسیم و تثبیت‌کننده آزادزی نیتروژن بر شاخص‌های رشدی ماش (Vigna radiata L.)، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1396 در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی، با دو توده ماش (دزفولی و هندی)، شش تیمار کودی شامل: 1- باکتری‌های آزادزی تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن، 2- باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفر، 3- باکتری‌های حل‌کننده پتاسیم، 4- باکتری‌های آزادزی تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن + باکتری‌های حل‌کننده پتاسیم و فسفر، 5- کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و 6- شاهد (بدون کود زیستی و شیمیایی) در سه تکرار اجرا شد. مقدار واحد کلونی ریز‌موجود در هر گرم کود زیستی 107 واحد بود. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل شاخص سطح برگ، ماده خشک تجمعی، سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت آسیمیلاسیون خالص، سرعت رشد نسبی و عملکرد دانه بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیش‌ترین شاخص سطح برگ (80/3)، تجمع ماده خشک (835 گرم بر مترمربع) و عملکرد دانه (1558 کیلوگرم در هکتار) ماش در توده هندی به‌دست آمد و توده دزفولی بیش‌ترین سرعت رشد محصول (25 گرم در مترمربع در روز)، سرعت رشد نسبی (056/0 گرم در مترمربع در روز) و سرعت آسیمیلاسیون خالص (95/18 گرم دی‌اکسید‌کربن در مترمربع در روز) را نشان داد. کم‌ترین شاخص‌های رشد در شاهد در هر دو توده دزفولی و هندی به‌دست آمد. بر این اساس می‌توان چنین نتیجه گرفت که کاربرد هم‌زمان کودهای زیستی در بهبود شرایط رشدی گیاه اثر قابل توجهی داشته است و از ﻃﺮﯾﻖ اﻓﺰاﯾﺶ رﺷﺪ و ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ رﯾﺸﻪ و در نتیجه ﺟﺬب ﺑﻬﺘﺮ آب و ﻣﻮاد ﻏﺬاﯾﯽ از ﺧﺎک توانسته است، ﺳﺒﺐ اﻓﺰاﯾﺶ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد و ﺑﻬﺒﻮد ﺻﻔﺎت ﮐﻤّﯽ ﮔﯿﺎه ﮔﺮدد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Free-Living Nitrogen Fixating, Phosphorus and Potassium Solubilizing Bacteria on Growth Indicators on Two Mung Bbean (Vigna radiata L.) Landrace

نویسندگان [English]

  • Afsaneh Yousefi 1
  • Reza Mirzaeitalarposhti 2
  • jafar nabati 1
  • Saeed Soufizadeh 2
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Economic problems as well as environmental concerns related to irregular and excessive application of agricultural chemicals have shifted the attentions toward application of biological fertilizers in many agro-ecosystems. In order to reduce environmental pollution and ecological damage caused by usage of chemical fertilizers, there is a need to use resources and inputs, which not only meet crop nutrient requirements, but also guarantee the long-term sustainability of agricultural systems. Beans are used as human food sources and to improve soil fertility through bio-stabilization of nitrogen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of biofertilizer including (free-living nitrogen-fixating bacteria, and potassium and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria) on growth Indicators of two mung bean landrace.
Materials and Methods
In order to investigate the effect of free-living nitrogen fixating, phosphorus and potassium solubilizing bacteria on growth indices of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete block design as factorial arrangement. Two mung bean landrace (Dezfouli and Indian) were planted under six fertilization systems at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2017. Six fertilization treatments include: 1-free-living nitrogen fixating 2- phosphorus solubilizing bacteria 3- potassium solubilizing bacteria 4- free-living nitrogen fixating +phosphorus solubilizing bacteria + potassium solubilizing bacteria 5- nitrogen fertilizer 6- Control (without biological and chemical fertilizers) were applied. Before planting, a soil depth of 0-30 cm was obtained from soil samples and the soil physico-chemical properties were measured. Sampling was started 20 days after planting by taking 6 destructive samples. Plant were sampled two weekly intervals to determine the growth parameters of mung bean including leaf area index (LAI), dry matter accumulation (DM), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), and net assimilation rate (NAR).
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the highest leaf area index (3.80) and dry matter accumulation (835 g. m-2) were observed in Indian mung bean, also the highest Crop growth rate (25 g.m-2.day-1), net assimilation rate (18.95 g CO2.m-2.day-1) and relative growth rate (0.056 g.g-1.day-1) were obtained in Dezfuli Landrace. The lowest growth indices in control treatment were obtained in both Dezfuli and Indian Landrace. Also, the highest yield (1558 kg. ha-1) at application time of bifertilizers was obtained for Indian mung bean under (free-living nitrogen fixating + phosphorus solubilizing bacteria + potassium solubilizing bacteria) treatment. The use of bio-fertilizers through synergistic effects by creating a suitable substrate and favorable for nutrients improves the growth and increase of yield. Also, increasing leaf area can increase the plant's photosynthetic potential and increase dry matter, at finally to increased plant yield. Mung bean plant despite its ability to stabilize nitrogen due to its poor root yield is low. Inoculation with free-living nitrogen fixating, phosphorus solubilizing and potassium solubilizing bacteria, due to increased access to nutrients, which is an effective factor in stimulating the growth and photosynthesis of plants. It improves the growth conditions, develops vegetative growth, extends and prolongs the leaf area, produces photosynthetic materials and as a result increases yield. The application of the mentioned bio fertilizers has increased the number of elements and the development of photosynthetic surfaces and the plant produced the produced material to the reproductive organs and finally growth indices have increased compared to the control treatment.
Conclusion
It was revealed that symbiosis of various biofertilizers not only improve mung bean Growth Indicators but also can reduce negative aspects of chemical fertilizer application in crop production systems. Giving attention to more frequent application of biological fertilizers could be considered as an important agro-ecological approach, which results in healthier soil and water resources.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological fertilizers
  • Crop Growth Rate
  • Leaf Area Index
  • Net assimilation rate
  • Sustainable agriculture
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