تأثیر کمپوست زباله شهری و کودهای شیمیایی بر عملکرد کمّی و کیفی گندم آبی (Triticum astivum L.) رقم بهار

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

بخش تحقیقات آب و خاک، مرکز تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی تهران

10.22067/jag.v11i4.72530

چکیده

با توجه به کمبود مواد آلی در خاک­ها و با هدف استفاده بهینه از کودهای آلی و شیمیایی برای دست­یابی به کشاورزی پایدار، آزمایشی به­منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای شیمیایی و کود آلی کمپوست زباله شهری بر عملکرد کمّی وکیفی گندم (Triticum astivum L.) رقم بهار، با چهار سطح کودهای شیمیایی (بدون مصرف، سیستم رایج، بر اساس آنالیز خاک و 25 درصد کم‌تر از آنالیز خاک) و کمپوست زباله شهری در چهار سطح (0، 10 ، 20 و 30 تن بر هکتار) به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار، در سال زراعی 93-1392 در کرمانشاه اجرا شد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر اصلی مصرف کمپوست، کودهای شیمیایی و اثر برهم‌کنش آن‌ها روی صفات آزمایشی معنی­دار شد. در این تحقیق کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی و کمپوست سبب افزایش معنی­دار عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در سنبله، ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد پنجه در بوته، درصد پروتئین و غلظت عناصر غذایی در دانه گندم گردید. مقایسه میانگین اثر برهم‌کنش کودهای شیمیایی و کمپوست زباله شهری نشان داد با کاربرد تیمار 10 تن بر هکتار کمپوست و کودهای شیمیایی 25 درصد کم‌تر از آنالیز خاک، بیش‌ترین عملکرد دانه (5900 کیلوگرم بر هکتار)، وزن هزار دانه (39 گرم)، تعداد دانه در سنبله (71)، درصد پروتئین (6/12) و غلظت عناصر غذایی در دانه به‌دست آمد و کم‌ترین میزان صفات مورد بررسی در شاهد مشاهده گردید. با توجه به نتایج به­دست آمده و در نظر گرفتن مسائل زیست­محیطی، کاربرد توأم 10 تن بر هکتار کمپوست و کودهای شیمیایی 25 درصد کم‌تر از آنالیز خاک پیشنهاد می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Municipal Solid Waste Compost and Chemical Fertilizers on Quantitative and Quiltative Yield of Irrigated Wheat (var. Bahar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • jalal ghaderi
  • Adel Nemati
  • Mohmoud Shariatmadari
Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AEEO
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Use of chemical fertilizers is an essential component of modern farming and about 50% of the world’s crop production can be attributed to fertilizer use. Sustainable production of crops cannot be maintained by using only chemical fertilizers and similarly it is not possible to obtain higher crop yield using organic manure alone. A balanced fertilization is needed to obtain optimum potential yield. The continuous imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers is creating complexity in our soils and the soil health is deteriorating. Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSW) is commonly applied to the soils to improve their physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil amendment with MSW is very useful for agricultural crop production. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the world’s leading cereal crop both in area and production and about two-third of people of our planet live on it. It plays an important role in diet of human being as well as in industrial uses. The present study was conducted to better understand the effect of MSW and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of irrigated wheat in kermanshah condition.
Materials and Methods
In order to study the effects of municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of Bahar wheat cultivar, a field experiment was conducted with chemical fertilizers at four levels (0, conventional farmers, based on soil test and 25% lower than the soil test), and MSW at four levels (0, 10, 20 and 30 ton.ha-1) in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications in Kermanshah region during 2014-2015.Prior to sowing, MSW and chemical fertilizers was applied and mixed thoroughly with the soil. Before planting, combined soil sample from a depth of 0–30 cm was collected to determine some soil chemical properties.
Plots were designed with 4 ×4 m, 1 m apart from each other., 1.5 m alley was kept between blocks. Wheat seeds (var. Bahar) were planted 2.5 cm apart from each other. During the growth and development stages, plots were irrigated based on the crop water requirement. Irrigation method was sprinkler. Grain yield were determined after the harvest and seed samples (harvesting stage) were taken and rinsed with distilled water, oven dried at 70°C, ground, digested and analyzed for determining the N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentration. Analysis of variance was performed using MSTAT-C and mean comparisons done by Duncan’s multiple range test (P ≤ 0.05).
 Results and Discussion
Results showed that MWS and chemical fertilizers and their interaction effects had significant effects on experimental traits. Using of MWS with chemical fertilizers led to increase plant height, 1000 grain weight, seed number per spike, grain yield, protein percent and nutrients concentration in grain. The results of means comparison showed that the highest grain yield (5900 kg.ha-1), 1000 seed weight (39 g), grain number per spike (71), protein percent (12.6) and nutrients concentration in grain was obtained under the co-application of 10 ton.ha-1 MWS and chemical fertilizers (25 percent less than the soil test) and the lowest amounts of experimental traits were shown in control treatment. Our results are in agreement with some experiments which use of compost and chemical fertilizers on irrigated wheat.
 Conclusion
The result of this experiment revealed that using of compost and chemical fertilizers in integrated form instead of individual application has a beneficial effect on improving the quantitative and qualitative yield of irrigated wheat. Based on the obtained results, co-application of 10 ton.ha-1 compost and chemical fertilizers (25 percent less than the soil test) at kermanshah condition can be recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iron
  • Nitrogen
  • Organic manure
  • Phosphorus
  • Zinc
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