مطالعه تأثیر باکتری‌های تقویت‌کننده رشد گیاه بر ویژگی‌های بوم‌شناختی فیزیولوژیک ارقام سویا (Glycine max L.) تحت رژیم‌های آبیاری

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه رازی

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف بررسی نقـش باکتری­هـای تقویت‌کننده رشد بر برخی از مهم‌ترین ویژگی­های بوم­شناختی فیزیولوژیک سویا (Glycine max L.) تحت رژیم­های مختلف رطوبتی به‌صورت کرت­های خرد شده فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی با سه تکرار در سال 1396 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل رژیم­های مختلف رطوبتی (I1: قطع آبیاری از مرحله پرشدن دانه­ها تا انتهای دوره رشد، I2: قطع آبیاری از مرحله پایان تشکیل غلاف تا انتهای دوره رشد و I3: آبیاری کامل در تمام طول فصل رشد )بدون تنش آبیاری در ­حدود 50 درصد تخلیه رطوبت) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و سویه­های باکتری تقویت‌کننده (B1: بدون باکتری، B2: Bacillus subtilis، B3: Bacillus licheniformis) و ارقام سویای کوثر، M9 وTMS به‌عنوان دیگر فاکتورها در نظر گرفته شد. صفات مورد ارزیابی شامل شاخص سطح برگ، روند جذب تشعشع، سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت رشد نسبی، وزن خشک کل، کارایی مصرف تشعشع و عملکرد دانه بود. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش تنش خشکی ویژگی­های مورد ارزیابی ارقام مختلف سویا به‌شدت کاهش یافت. کاربرد سویه­های مختلف باکتری به‌شدت منجر به بهبود ویژگی­های مورد ارزیابی شد. بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ (7/6)، روند جذب تشعشع (2/18 مگاژول در مترمربع)، سرعت رشد محصول (6/20 گرم در در مترمربع در روز)، وزن خشک کل (7/1104 گرم در مترمربع) و کارایی مصرف تشعشع (165/1 گرم در مگاژول) مربوط به رقم TMS و در شرایط آبیاری کامل + تلقیح باکتری لیکنی فورمیس وکم‌ترین میزان صفات مذکور مربوط به رقم کوثر و در شرایط قطع آبیاری از اواسط تشکیل غلاف + بدون تلقیح باکتری بود. عملکرد دانه سویا به‌طور معنی­داری تحت تأثیر تیمارهای آزمایش قرار گرفت، به‌طوری­که بیش‌ترین عملکرد دانه به‌میزان 9/380 گرم در مترمربع مربوط به رقم TMS در تیمار آبیاری کامل + تلقیح باکتری سوبتیلیس بود و کم‌ترین آن به‌میزان 2/134 گرم در مترمربع مربوط به رقم کوثر بود که در تیمار قطع آبیاری از اواسط تشکیل غلاف + بدون باکتری مشاهده شد. به نظر می­رسد در صورت کاهش مقدار آب قابل دسترس، تلقیح با باکتری­های تقویت‌کننده رشد گیاه منجر به افزایش تحمل به تنش کمبود آب به‌ویژه در شرایط تنش ملایم می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying Effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Ecophysiological Traits of Soybean (Glycine max L.) under Irrigation Regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzad Mondani
  • Kianoosh Khani
  • Saeid Jalali Honarmand
  • Mohsen Saeedi
Razi University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Water scarcity and frequent droughts are becoming a serious problem particularly in the context of alarming predictions of climate change in the world. Within the arid and semi-arid regions, water availability is a major limitation for crop production. Thus, it is necessary to improve yield and the efficient utilization of limited available water in the irrigated agroecosystems. One possibility to enhance crop yield under water limitation is using soil microorganisms that increase the radiation and water efficiency and uptake capacity. Among these potential soil microorganisms, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the most promising, including all bacteria inhabiting the rhizosphere and the rhizoplane able to simulate plant growth and yield. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the PGPR on the ecophysiological characteristics of soybean under different moisture regimes.
Material and Methods
The field experiment was conducted during 2016 at the research farm of Campus of Agriculture and Natural Research, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran (34°, 19´ N, 47°, 50´ E with 1320 m altitude). A split plot factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design. Main plots had three irrigation regimes in which irrigation was cut based on the soybean stages (I1: water deficit stress from mid pod development stage to maturity stage; I2: water deficit stress from grain filling development stage to maturity stage; and I3: optimum irrigation in all development stages) and sub-plots were composed of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) (B1: no bacteria; B2: Bacillus subtilis; and B: Bacillus licheniformis) and soybean cultivar (TMS, M9 and Kosar). The experimental plots were irrigated based on furrow method. I3 treatment were irrigated every 7 days until the end of the growing period while in the I1 and I2 treatments, the plots were irrigated every 7 days until the start of the water deficit stress. In order to inoculate with the PGPR, the soybean seeds were plunged in a 1:10 (v:v) solution of liquid culture and distilled water, respectively for 10 minutes. All seeds including inoculated and no inoculated seeds oven-dried at 30 ℃ for 5 h. Finally, the soybean inoculated seeds by PGPR were inoculated by Rhizobium japonicum before sowing and cultivated immediately at 4 to 5 cm soil depth. The evaluated traits were the leaf area index (LAI), radiation absorption (RA), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth ratio (RGR), total dry weight (TDW), radiation use efficiency (RUE) and Grain yield (GY).
Results and Discussion
The results indicated that the water deficit stress reduced the LAI, RA, CGR, RGR, TDW, RUE and GY of soybean. The PGPR application improved all measured traits of soybean in all irrigation regime treatments. The highest LAI (6.7), RA (18.2 MJ.m-2), CGR (20.6 g.m-2.d-1), TDW (1104.7 g.m-2) and RUE (1.165 g.MJ-1) were related to TMS cultivar in the optimum irrigation and B. licheniformis treatment and the lowest them were related to Kosar cultivar under water deficit stress from mid pod development stage to maturity stage and no bacteria treatment. The greatest GY (380.9 g.m-2) was related to TMS cultivar which was observed in the optimum irrigation and B. licheniformis treatment and the lowest GY (134.2 g.m-2) was related to Kosar cultivar which was observed in the water deficit stress from mid pod development stage to maturity stage and no bacteria treatment. In this study, B. licheniformis compared to B. subtilis presented a more effective improvement in soybean LAI, RA, CGR, RGR, TDW, RUE and GY.
Conclusion
It seems that the PGPR could promote the soybean growth and yield via increasing the root system and more uptake of water in the rhizosphere. Nevertheless, as the results showed, the more effects of the PGPR were observed in the I2 treatment compared to other treatments. The PGPR actually could promote the soybean growth and yield in the mid water deficit stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • grain yield
  • Growth indices
  • Radiation absorption
  • Radiation Use Efficiency
  • Water deficit stress
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