اثرات همزیستی میکوریزا و پرایمینگ بذر بر بهبود عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت دانه-ای (L. Zea mays) در شرایط خاک شور

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

چکیده

به­منظور کاهش اثرات تنش شوری در مزرعه آزمایش تاثیر همزمان پرایمینگ بذر و استفاده از میکوریزا بر بهبود عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد ذرت هیبرید 640 NS در شهرستان گتوند استان خوزستان طی دو سال 1394-1393 انجام شد. آزمایش فاکتوریل با دو فاکتور میکوریزا و پرایمینگ بذر در دو مکان خاک شور (7dS.m-1 (EC= و خاک غیرشور(EC=2/5dS.m-1)  در طی دو سال اجرا شد. آزمایش برای دو مکان و دو سال تجزیه مرکب شد. عامل اول تلقیح و عدم تلقیح محدوده بستر بذر با میکوریزا (Glomus mossea)، عامل دوم ، چهار سطح پرایمینگ بذر شامل اسموپرایمینگ با محلول NaCl (با غلظت دو دسی زیمنس بر متر در مدت 22 ساعت)، پرایمینگ با اسید سالیسیلیک (با غلظت 5/0 میلی­مولار در مدت 14 ساعت)، پرایمینگ با آب شهری (مدت زمان 18 ساعت) و عدم پرایم (شاهد) بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد که اثرات سال، مکان، سال × مکان، پرایمینگ بذر، تلقیح میکوریزایی و اثرات متقابل آنها بر صفات شاخص سطح برگ در مرحله گل تاجی، تعداد دانه در بلال، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد ، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت معنی دار بودند. مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان داد کاربرد تلقیح با میکوریزا نسبت به عدم تلقیح و استفاده از پرایمینگ بذر نسبت به شاهد (عدم پرایم) در تمامی صفات اندازه­گیری شده در هر دو محیط شور و غیرشور در هر دو سال برتری داشتند. در مکان شور بدون کاربرد تلقیح با میکوریزا و پرایم (شاهد)، میزان شاخص سطح برگ (7/2)، تعداد دانه در بلال (212)، وزن هزار دانه (210 گرم)، عملکرد دانه (2826 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (7296 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود که کاربرد پرایمینگ باعث افزایش تمامی صفات شده و بیشترین افزایش در تیمار پرایمینگ با اسید سالیسیلیک بدست آمد که باعث افزایش شاخص سطح برگ (8/14 درصد)، تعداد دانه در بلال (4/34 درصد)، وزن هزار دانه (9/10 درصد)، عملکرد دانه (7/48 درصد) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (8/37 درصد) نسبت به عدم کاربرد پرایم و تلقیح با میکوریزا (شاهد) شده بود. تلقیح با میکوریزا باعث افزایش شاخص سطح برگ (9/2 درصد)، تعداد دانه در بلال (8/19 درصد)، وزن هزار دانه (2/4 درصد)، عملکرد دانه (9/23 درصد) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (9/19 درصد) نسبت به عدم کاربرد پرایم و تلقیح با میکوریزا (شاهد) شده بود. اثر متقابل پرایمینگ بذر و تلقیح با میکوریزا باعث افزایش تمامی صفات شده بود بیشترین افزایش در تیمار پرایمینگ با اسید سالیسیلیک و تلقیح با میکوریزا بدست آمد که باعث افزایش افزایش شاخص سطح برگ (9/25 درصد)، تعداد دانه در بلال (4/42 درصد)، وزن هزار دانه (7/15 درصد)، عملکرد دانه (9/62 درصد) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (2/49 درصد) نسبت به عدم کاربرد پرایم و تلقیح با میکوریزا (شاهد) شده بود و نشان­دهنده هم­افزایی اثرات متقابل میکوریزا و پرایمینگ بذر در کاهش تنش شوری می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Symbiosis Mycorrhiza and On-farm Seed Priming on the Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Saline Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Soltani Kazemi
  • Mohammad Ali Aboutalebian
  • javad Hamzei
Bu Ali Sina University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
 There are many methods to deal with salinity, one of which is less costly and more practical seed priming. Seed prime with different methods with mycorrhiza fungi can be used to improve the deposition of seeds and ultimately yield in saline lands. According to available reports, priming seeds are better placed in environmental stress conditions, such as salinity, and produce higher plantings. Priming increases rooting and increases the yield in corn by 14%. The seedling growth rate was seven days earlier than the non-prime. Plants that are inoculated with mycorrhiza will increase growth and yield and maintain the osmotic potential and ionic balance to a normal level and cause resistance to stress conditions.
Materials and Methods
 This research was carried out during two years 2014 and 2015 in two locations in the province of Khouzestan, Gotvand city, with an altitude of 76 meters above sea level and the coordinates of 32 degrees north latitude and 48 degrees east longitude. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications on maize hybrid NS64. The concentration of salicylic acid 0.5 mM within 14 hours, osmopriming with NaCl solution at a concentration of 2 dS.m-1 within 22 hours, tap water within 18 hours were selected as the best combination of on-farm seed priming. The mycorrhiza fungus was taken in strips under the seeds of 20 g.m-2 . Analysis of variance was done using the PROC GLM procedure of the SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA).
Results and Discussion
Results showed that all traits in both years and places inoculation with mycorrhiza and priming with salicylic acid, tap water and NaCl solution to the non-inoculate and non-prime increasing significantly and between inoculation with mycorrhiza and Prime treatments, inoculation with mycorrhiza and prime with salicylic acid in both place have better condition. Inoculated with mycorrhiza and priming with salicylic acid in saline place increases the leaf area index in the Tasseling, number of seeds per ear, 1000-kernal weight, yield, biological yield, harvest index, the amount of 26.5, 42, 15.5, 62.5, 49.2, 9.3 percent than non- inoculation with mycorrhiza and not prime. The difference between inoculation with mycorrhiza and salicylic acid treatment and non- inoculation with mycorrhiza and non-prime in saline place compared to non-saline place in all traits was higher.
Conclusion
The results showed that application of inoculation with mycorrhiza to non-inoculation and seed priming compared to control (Non-primed) in all measured traits under both saline and non-saline environments were superior in both years. Priming of maize seeds with salicylic acid (0.5 mM for 14 hours) was superior to other pretreatments. Under salinity without prime application and  inoculum  mycorrhiza (Control) the amount of  number of seeds per ear (212), 1000 grain weight (210 g), grain yield (2826 kg.ha-1) were measured, that application of priming  increased all traits and the highest increase was observed in salicylic acid treatment, which increased  grain number in ear (34.4%), 1000 grain weight (10.9%), grain yield (48.7%) compared with not used prime and inoculation with mycorrhiza (control). Inoculation with mycorrhiza increased the number of seeds per ear (19.8%), 1000 grain weight (4.2%), grain yield (23.9%) compared with lack of prime application and inoculation with mycorrhiza (control). Interaction of seed priming and inoculation with mycorrhiza increased all traits. The highest increase was observed in salicylic acid priming treatments and inoculation with mycorrhiza that increased number of seeds per ear (42.4% ), 1000 grain weight (15.7%), grain yield (62.9%) than lack of prime and inoculation with mycorrhiza (Control). In the first year, in comparison to the second year, all measured traits increased due to the favorable temperature and number of sunny hours for growing and inoculation of flowers and filling of grain. Consequently, in both saline and non-saline environment, inoculation with mycorrhiza and prime with salicylic acid is suggested as a method for improving crop cultivation of the NS640 cultivar.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Glomus mossea
  • Harvest index
  • Leaf Area Index
  • Nacl solution
  • salicylic acid
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