پاسخ توده‌های بومی گیاه دارویی شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) به کاربرد بیوچار در شرایط کم‌آبیاری

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

2 پژوهشکده ی بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد بیوچار بر رشد و عملکرد توده‌های بومی گیاه دارویی شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) در شرایط کم‌آبیاری، آزمایشی در سال 1394 در مزرعه‌ی تحقیقاتی پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران در شهر کرج اجرا گردید. بدین منظور شش توده‌ی بومی پاکوتاه دزفول، شوشتر، اردستان، رهنان، یزد و خمینی‌شهر در شرایط عدم‌کاربرد و کاربرد بیوچار در دو دور آبیاری 4 و 8 روز  با استفاده از آزمایش اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل درقالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل نشان داد کاربرد بیوچار در هر دو دور آبیاری عملکرد دانه، وزن صد دانه و تعداد شاخه‌ی اصلی و فرعی در بوته را افزایش می‌دهد. با وجود پاسخ متفاوت توده‌ها، اثر کاهشی افزایش دور آبیاری بر عملکرد دانه، وزن صد دانه، ارتفاع بوته و تعداد شاخه‌ی اصلی و فرعی در بوته در تمام توده‌ها مشاهده شد. میانگین تعداد غلاف در بوته و تعداد دانه در غلاف تحت تأثیر اثرات متقابل تیمارها قرار نگرفتند. روند مشابه تغییرات وزن صد دانه و عملکرد دانه تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی نشان می‌دهد که کاربرد بیوچار عملکرد را با افزایش وزن دانه، تا با افزایش تعداد غلاف در بوته و تعداد دانه در غلاف، افزایش داده است. در میان توده‌ها، رهنان بیشترین عملکرد دانه، وزن صد دانه و تعداد غلاف در بوته را به خود اختصاص داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Landraces Response to Biochar Application under Deficit Irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Bitarafan 1
  • HamidReza Asghari 1
  • Tahereh Hasanloo 2
  • Ahmad Gholami 1
  • Foad Moradi 2
1 Shahrood University of Technology
2 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Biochar which is producing by thermal decomposition of organic material under limited supply of oxygen and relatively low temperatures, produces with the intent to be applied as a technique for improving soil properties. Adding biochar to the soils boosts soil fertility and improves the porosity, moisture, cation exchange capacity, pH, and development and reproduction of microbes in the long term. Research indicated that biochar potentially enhanced soil water holding capacity. This infers that soil amendment with biochar may improve crop productivity by retaining more water from rainfall in arid regions and reduce the frequency/amount of irrigation water in irrigated regions. Currently there is no logical method to increase precipitation during drought periods, therefore using drought resistance cultivars and appropriate agricultural techniques are the best solution to deal with this problem. Using soil amendments like biochar to increase water retention has been considered for a long time to decrease the drought effects. This study aimed to assess the effect of biochar on growth and yield of fenugreek landraces under deficit irrigation.
Material and methods
To assess the effect of biochar on growth and yield of fenugreek landraces under deficit irrigation, a field experiment was conducted in 2015 at the Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran. Six branched fenugreek landraces including Dezful, Shushtar, Ardestan, Rehnan, Yazd, and KhomeyniShahr were treated by biochar application and non-application under 2 different irrigation intervals. A split plot factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Each plot had the size of 4 m × 2.5 m with a plant density of 40 plant m-2. Biochar was derived from rice husk at 500°C in an oxygen depleted environment. Biochar application rate was calculated based on bulk density for the 30 cm layer of the soil (8:92 v/v) and added to the top layer of the soil. Increasing irrigation interval from 4 to 8 days applied from 50% of flowering stage. Seeds were sown on May 10th and mature plants were harvested on November 11th. Plant height, number of main and secondary branches, as well as yield and yield components were measured. Statistical analyses were done using SAS (9.2) software.
Results and discussion
According to the results, assessed traits were not significantly affected by triple interaction effect of treatments and also double interaction effect of landrace and biochar. But biochar application increased the number of main and secondary branches, 100-seed weight, and seed yield on 4- days irrigation interval by 19.75, 18.13, 17.54, and 24.33%, respectively and on 8-days irrigation interval by 2.61, 19.52, 8.67, and 26.66%, respectively. Moreover, increasing irrigation interval decreased plant height by 22.42, 22.01, 27.23, 13.66, 27.13, 26.62%; the number of main branches by 6.18, 7.92, 31.84, 16.66, 24.22%, 32.97%; the number of secondary branches by 40.54, 39.09, 40.99, 39.83, 40.89, 40.88%; 100-seed weight by 20.43, 8.70, 17.22, 26.98, 26.44, 23.11%; and seed yield by 61.20, 47.55, 50.12, 44.71, 38.44, 46.24% in Dezful, Shushtar, Ardestan, Rehnan, Yazd, and KhomeyniShahr landraces, respectively. However, the number of pods plant-1 and seeds pod-1 were not significantly affected by interaction effects of treatments. Several studies showed the reduction of crop growth and production under water deficit. Baradaran et al. (2013) also indicated increase in irrigation intervals decreased plant height, the number of pods, the number of seeds pod-1, and thousand-seed weight in fenugreek. This results are due to increase in allocation of photosynthetic material to roots than shoot resulting in smaller plants with less leaf area as a key factor in receiving solar radiation, water and energy exchange, and biomass production. Several studies reported increased water holding capacity by biochar addition because of its high adsorption capacity and porous structure. Akhtar et al. (2014) also reported that addition of biochar increased the soil moisture content in deficit irrigation which consequently improved physiology, yield and quality of tomato compared with non-biochar control.
Conclusion
In conclusion, adding biochar at a concentration of 7-8% to a loamy soil reduced the effect of water deficit on fenugreek growth and seed yield. Biochar increase seed yield by increasing seed weight rather than the number of pods plant-1 and seeds pod-1.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biochar
  • Ecotype
  • Fenugreek
  • Irrigation Interval
  • Seed yield and yield component
Ahmadi, M.R., and Javidfar, F. 2000. Evaluation and drought tolerance improvement methods in oil species of Brassica genus. Agricultural Research and Education Organization Press, Karaj, Iran.(In Persian)
Akhtar, S.S., Li, G., Andersen M.N., and Liu, F. 2014. Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation. Agricultural Water Management 138: 37-44.
Angus, J.F., and Van Herwaarden, A.F. 2001. Increasing water use and water use efficiency in dryland wheat. Agronomy Journal 93: 290-298.
Artiola, J.F., Craig R., and Robert, F. 2012. Effects of a biochar-amended alkaline soil on the growth of Romaine lettuce and bermudagrass. Soil Science 177: 561-570.
Atkinson, C.J., Fitzgerald, J.D., and Hipps, N.A. 2010. Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: a review. Plant and soil 337: 1-18.
Baradaran, R., Shokhmgar, M., Mosavi, G., and Arazmjo, E. 2013. Effects of irrigation interval and nitrogen on seed yield and yield components of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum). Journal of Horticultural Sciences 27(3): 295-300.
Basso, A.S., Miguez, F.E., David, A.L., Robert, H., and Westgate, M. 2013. Assessing potential of biochar for increasing water-holding capacity of sandy soils. GCB Bioenergy 5(2): 132-143.
Brodowski, S., Amelung, W., Haumaier, L., and Zech, W. 2007. Black carbon contribution to stable humus in German arable soils. Geoderma 139:220-228.
Chan, K.Y., Van Zwieten, L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A., and Joseph, S. 2007. Agronomic values of greenwaste biochar as a soil amendment. Australian journal of soil research 45: 629.
Deng, X.P., Shan, L., Zhang, H., and Turner, N.C. 2006. Improving agricultural water use efficiency in arid and semiarid areas of china. Agricultural water management 80: 23-40.
De Jesus, W.C., Do Vale, F.X.R., Coelho, R.R., and Costa, L.C. 2001. Comparison of two methods for estimating leaf area index on common bean. Agronomy Journal 93: 989-991.
FAO. 2006. World reference base for soil resources 2006. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 128 pp.
FFTC. 2007. Managing the carbon cycle. Katanning workshop 21-22 March 2007. WWW.amazingcarbon.com.
Glaser, B., Lehmann, J., and Zech, W. 2002. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal- a review. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 219-230.
Haefele, S.M., Konboon, Y., Wongboon, W., Amarante, S., Maarifat, A.A., Pfeiffer, E.M., and Knoblauch, C. 2011. Effect and fate of biochar from rice residues in rice-based systems. Field Crops Research 121: 430-440.
Harris, P., 1999. On charcoal. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 24: 301-306.
Hatfield, J.L., Sauer, T.J., and Prueger, J.H. 2001. Managing soils to achieve greater water use efficiency: a review. Agronomy Journal 280: 271-280.
Howell, T.A. 2001. Enhancing water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. Agronomy journal 93: 281-289.
Jeffery, S., Verheijen, F.C., Van Der Velde, M., and Bastos, C. 2011. A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and environment 144:175-187.
Kuhlbusch, T.A.J., and Crutzen, P.J. 1995. Toward a global estimate of black carbon in residues of vegetation fires representing a sink of atmospheric CO2 and a source of O2. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9: 491-501.
Kuzentsov, V.I., and Shevykova, N.I. 1999. Proline under stress: Biological role, metabolism, and regulation. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 46: 274-287.
Laird, D., Fleming, P., Davis, D.D., Horton, R., Wang, B., and Karlen, D.L. 2010. Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a typical Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158: 443-449.
Lehmann, J., and Rondon, M. 2006. Bio-char soil management on highly weathered soils in the humid tropics. In: N. Uphoff , N., Ball,. A.S., Palm, C., Fernandes, E., Pretty, J., Herrren, H., Sanchez, P., Husson, O., Sanginga, N., Laing, M., and Thies, J. (eds.) Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 517-530.
Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M. 2006. Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 403-427.
Lehmann, J., Kern, D.C., Glaser, B., and Woods, W.I. 2003. Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. P. 105-124.
Lehmann, J., Rillig, M.C., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C., and Crowley, D. 2011. Biochar effect on soil biota- a review. Soil biology and biochemistry 43: 1812-1836.
Mandal, B.K., Ray, P.K., and Dasgupta, S. 1986. Water use by Wheat, Chickpea and Mustard grown as sole crops and intercrops. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 56: 187-193.
Novak, J.M., Lima, I., Xing, B.S., Gaskin, J.W., Steiner, C., Das, K.C., Ahmedna, M., Rehrah, D., Watts, D.W., Busscher, W.J., and Schomberg, H. 2009. Characterization of designer biochar produced at different temperatures and their effects on a loamy sand. Annals of Environmental Science 3: 195-206.
Oguntunde, P.G., Abiodun, B.J., Ajayi, A.E., and Van De Giesen, N. 2008. Effects of charcoal production on soil physical properties in Ghana. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171: 591-596.
Oki, T., and Kanae, S. 2006. Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313 (August 25), 1068-1072.
Seetseng, K.A. 2008. Effect of water application and plant density on canola (Brassica napus L.) in the free state. M.S. thesis, University of the Free State Bloemfontein.
Sinclair, T.R., Gilbert, R.A., Perdomo, R.E., Shine JR J.M., Powell, G., and Montes, G. 2004. Sugarcane leaf area development under field conditions in Florida, USA. Field Crops Research 88: 171-178.
Sohi, S.P., Krull, E., Lopez-Capel, E., and Bol, R. 2010. A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. Advances in Agronomy 105: 47-82.
Sreevalli, Y., Baskaran, K., Chandrashekara, R.S, and Kulkarni, R.N. 2001. Preliminary observations on the effect of irrigation frequency and genotypes on yield and alkaloid concentration in periwinkle. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic plant Science 22: 356-358.
Streubel, J.D., Collins, H.P., Garcia-Perez, M., Tarara, J., Granatstein, D., and Kruger, C.E. 2011. Influence of contrasting biochar types on five soils at increasing rate of application. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 75: 1402-1413.
Ueckert, D.N., Whigham, T.L., and Spears, B.M. 1978. Effect of soil burning on infiltration, sediment, and other soil properties in mesquite: tobosagrass community. Journal of range management 31: 420-425.
Yamato, M., Okimori, Y., Wibowo, I.F., Anshori, S., and Ogawa, M. 2006. Effects of the application of charred bark of Acacia mangium on the yield of maize, cowpea, peanut and soil chemical properties in south Sumatra, Indonesia. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 52: 489-495.