بررسی خصوصیات بوم‌شناختی، ریختی و میزان اسانس پونه (Mentha longifolia L.) در برخی مناطق استان فارس و خراسان رضوی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

چکیده

پونه (Mentha longifolia L. syn. Mentha sylvestris L.) گیاه دارویی و معطر ارزشمند متعلق به خانواده نعناعیان می­باشد. به‌منظور بررسی صفات مورفولوژیکی  Mentha longifolia L.از 10 رویشگاه در استان فارس و استان خراسان رضوی (سپیدان، بوانات، کوار، کازرون، فسا، تربت‌حیدریه، مشهد، نیشابور، کاشمر و چناران) در زمان گلدهی، نمونه‌گیری انجام شد. اطلاعات مربوط به رویشگاه­ها یادداشت­برداری و از هر رویشگاه 10 نمونه گیاهی کامل انتخاب و 19 صفت کمی و کیفی برای هر اکوتیپ بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که تنوع قابل‌ ملاحظه‌ای از نظر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی در بین اکوتیپ­ها وجود داشت. بازده متوسط تولید اسانس پونه در رویشگاه‌های مشهد 83/1 درصد، کاشمر 8/1 درصد، چناران 87/0 درصد، تربت‌حیدریه 25/1 درصد، نیشابور 27/1 درصد، سپیدان 75/1 درصد، بوانات 55/1 درصد، کوار 75/1 درصد، کازرون 17/1 درصد، فسا 37/1 درصد تعیین شد. آنالیز همبستگی، وجود همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری بین برخی صفات مهم همچون ارتفاع گیاه با تعداد ساقه فرعی  (r=0.5)و تعداد گل (r= 0.59) را نشان داد. تجزیه به عامل‌ها نشان داد که صفاتی همچون طول برگ، عرض برگ و نوک پهنک با قرار گرفتن در مؤلفه اول بیشترین سهم در توجیه تغییرات داده‌ها را به خود اختصاص داد. تجزیه خوشه‌ای، جمعیت‌های مورد مطالعه را در 4 گروه مجزا تقسیم‌بندی کرد. با توجه به میزان بالای عملکرد اسانس در رویشگاه مشهد، این منطقه می‌تواند به­عنوان رویشگاه مستعد جهت پرورش این گونه به منظور استخراج اسانس معرفی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Ecological and Morphological Traits and Essential Oil Productivity of Mentha longifolia L. in Fars and Khorasan Razavi Provinces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Zohre Hosseini
  • Hassan Feizi
  • Safiyeh Vatandoost jertoodeh
  • Masoud Alipanah
University of Torbat Heydarieh
چکیده [English]

Introduction[1]
The basis for plant breeding research is genetic variability. In fact, without access to such variety, plant breeders to create and deliver new varieties will not have much success. Mirzaee Nadushan (2001) evaluated different species of mint and its morphologic features. In this study, between different species, a significant difference in terms of characters such as plant height, stem diameter, number of branches, leaf length and width were observed. Horse Mint (Mentha longifolia syn. Mentha sylvestris) is a valuable medicinal and aromatic plant belong to Lamiaceae family. The aim of this study was to identify areas of distribution, determine the ecological and morphological assessment of various climates and yield valuable medicinal oil is such that it provides a basis for investigating the genetic diversity of germplasm.
 
Materials and Methods
 In order to study morphological characteristics of Mentha longifolia in 10 regions of Fars and Khorasan Razavi Province, sampling was done at flowering stage in summer 2015. In order to study morphological diversity of wild landraces in Fars and Khorasan Razavi by referring to reliable sources, including Flora Iranica area distribution and habitats of this plant was found in two Provinces. The study area includes five sites in Fars Province (Sepidan, Bavanat, Fasa, Kovar, Kazeroon) and five regions in Khorasan Razavi Province (Torbat Heydarieh, Mashhad, Nishabur, Kashmar and Chenaran). Given that most of the active ingredients of the plant at the time of flowering is reported, plant samples in full bloom in ten regions in Fars and Khorasan were taken. Some samples were selected from each region and 19 quantitative and qualitative characteristics were determined for each ecotype. For accurate identification and diagnosis of morphological Horse mint herbarium specimens were collected and identified samples was done by qualified personnel. For extract the essential oil by water distillation by Clevenger apparatus according to the Pharmacopoeia Great Britain for three hours were done.
The samples based on all the characteristics of using the SPSS software and Ward methods were grouped. All correlation coefficients of traits in populations that were collected were analyzed by Pierson method using SPSS software. Cluster analysis was performed using JMP software.
 
Results and Discussion
The results showed considerable diversity in terms of morphological characteristics among ecotypes. Most of the side branch was observed in Mashhad and Kashmar populations. Correlation analysis showed significant positive association between some important characteristics. The correlation coefficients showed a positive association between the length of flower and length and width of leaf. Principal components analysis showed that traits like leaf length, width and blade tip were placed in first factor and had the most allotment in describing changes among collected data. Cluster analysis divided the subjects into four distinct groups. Mentha average production efficiency review showed that the highest essential oil yields was in Mashhad sites (1.8) and site of Kashmar (1.8) and the lowest amount of oil from the habitat Chenaran (0.9). Due to the high yields of essentials in samples collected from Mashhad district, it can be considered it is a good place prone to extraction of essential oils among studied areas.
 
Conclusion
The correlation coefficients showed a positive correlation between the length of flower and length and width of leaf. The shortest length of flowering branch inflorescence and the status of being in the seventh factor 46.5% of the change can be justified. The highest essential oil yields in Mashhad (1.8) and site of Kashmar (1.8) and the lowest amount of oil from the habitat Chenaran (0.9) was shown. Finally Mashhad landrace suggested for selection in domestication and cultivation of this plant.
 
Acknowledgment
The study was sponsored by the University of TorbatHeydarieh which thereby is appreciated
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Diversity
  • morphological traits
  • Cluster analysis
  • Medicinal plants
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